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Saturday, December 12, 2015

Rural Low Cost Arsenic Fluoride Removal System for Drinking Water

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Rural Low Cost Fluoride Removal System for Drinking Water


Guideline Values of Fluoride Standards in Drinking Water: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 1.0 mg/L of fluoride concentration in drinking water (WHO, 1984) and the Bureau of Indian Standards IS 10500:2012 recommends requirement (acceptable) limit of 1 mg/L and permissible limit of 1.5 mg/L in drinking water sources.


There are five processes available for the treatment fluoride contaminated water. They are
  • Rain water harvesting (Most Preferred in villages)
  • Using surface water like ponds and wells with low Fluoride content
  • Activated Alumina Filter  (The Best Absorbant)
  • Nalgonda technique. and
  • Reverse osmosis process (RO)
Read More http://www.appropedia.org/Water_defluoridation

Read even more on : http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/salud/salud_fluor23.htm

The World Health Organization created the following flowchart to aid in the decision making process


Red clay is being used to remove fluoride which may be a low-cost alternative to Activated Alumina, Bone charcoal and Reverse Osmosis (RO).
WATER TREATMENT CSIR TECHNOLOGIES






3 KALSHI FILTER( Removes Iron, Fluoride, Arsenic)


Description 
A homemade, three-pitcher filter unit, one of the simplest and most inexpensive ways treat drinking water. The first pitcher contains coarse sand. The second contains Activated Alumina , and the third collects the filtered water. 

Each kalshi has certain media and function: 
  • Top kalshi - coarse sand. 
  • Middle kalshi - Activated Alumina 
  • Bottom kalshi - collection container
A sari cloth is sometimes used as an additional filter between the top 2 kalshi. 
Benefits
  • Simple
  • Excellent microbial removal, Iron Removal,Fluoride and Arsenic Removal
  • Can be constructed of local materials
  • Income generation
Drawbacks
  • Fragile
  • Low flow (1-2 litres / hr.)
  • Irregular flow rate, requires frequent cleaning
  • Availability of cast iron chips
  • Operating & Maintenance: N/A
  • Cost:Minimum

 DNGM FOUNDATION ACTIVATED ALUMINA CANDLE FILTER FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL
http://www.dngmresfoundation.org/content_details.php?left_menu=43


read more on http://www.affws.in/auroaquasafe

pls watch video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79KDgzBcCWk

INREM FOUNDATION, AHMEDABAD
basic cost of activated alumina is Rs 200 to 300 per filters. plus activated charcoal Rs 25 to removal traces of aa which is harmful, rest buckets say around rs 200, and other material together , basic making cost wld be around rs 600 to rs 800.--sunder.
please watch these.

and read this please
http://www.inrem.in/fluorosis/solutions.html

ENVIS CENTER,Cheaper filters to remove arsenic
http://www.daenvis.org/success.htm Activated Alumina Granule

Domestic filterThree variations of domestic filter, all using AA, have been developed by BEG, and sponsored by UNICEF since   1999. The first was made with a steel  casing and used around three kg ofAA (costing Rs.100/kg or &1.20), but the second reduced this to one kg because it had a special porous candle (tripura), which  removes the iron prior to arsenic filtration. the flow rate has to be slow enough to ensure that there is sufficient time for the arsenic to be absorbed. The candle is made locally by baking clay, sand and rice husk in a   mould then leaving it to cure over a period of about twenty days. The second filter was cheaper because it has a ferro cement casing, but this makes it heavier - 35 kg. It is also necessary to backwash or blow air
back through the candle to displace the iron oxide sediment.  This can be a health risk.  
The third filter, developed in September 2003 by S. Smithers and J. Arnold for BEG, has fine-tuned the second design to make it cheaper, more user friendly, durable and hygienically sound, while reducing the overall weight by about five kg
READ MORE ABOUT FILTERS IN http://www.daenvis.org/success.htm



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