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I HAVE SHARED ALL MY PRACTICAL WATER TREATMENT EXPERIENCES WITH SOLVED EXAMPLE HERE SO THAT ANYBODY CAN USE IT.

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Monday, March 30, 2009

rapid composting process


Rapid Composting Process
The Immutable LawsCarbon/Nitrogen Ratio: = 30:1This is the first law one has to adhere to in order to ensure
rapid composting. Every ingredient you add into your
composter has it's own inherent C/N ratio, like

  • Grass clipping         = 15:1
  • Soft wood chips      = 226:1
  • Vegetable Waste     = 11:1
  • Poultry Manure       = 10:1

What you decide put into your composter the first day is the
weighted average of each of the individual items' C/N Ratio.
My ingredients, for example, are predominantly Grass Clippings
and Soft wood chips and I have computed my ratio to be 3 parts
grass clippings and 2 parts soft wood chips. You have to
perform the same calculation as I have, in order to arrive at
your final predominant ingredient ratio. Luckily there is an
online Free Java enabled
C/N Ratio Calculator that helps you
perform this calculation. I also add a minuscule (compared to
the above ingredients) amount of kitchen waste.
Note: Remember to cut everything down to 1.5" size.
WaterA 50% water content is necessary. This means the composter
may have to be watered from time to time if it appears dry and
the side vents will have to be left open if it appears wet. 50%
water content is as wet as a wrung out sponge. If you see
water settling on the bottom, it is too wet.
TemperatureIf the composting conditions are correct, it (the waste) will feel
hotter than ambient, surprisingly quite hot. It will continue to
feel hot until the entire process is done unless there is
something seriously wrong.

After the 3rd day of composting, when the waste (future
compost) has gone down to half it's original volume, the 55
Gallon drum is now only 1/2 full. This amount is below it's
critical mass and will loose heat at night when it the ambient is
cooler. This way you will loose 8 hours of valuable composting
time cutting into your 17 day harvest cycle. What I do is place a
20mil plastic sheet over the waste in order to insulate the
material and speed up the process.
AerationTurn the barrel at least once every day. If you do that, the
entire process will take 2.5 weeks, or 17 days. If you turn every
other day and all other conditions are correct, the process will
take 25 days. Quite an amazing feat, considering a left alone
compost pile will take a whole year to mature.
Fine TuningIf  you keep to the turning/tumbling schedule, one of 3 things
can go wrong and needs to be rectified mid-course.
  • Add/subtract Water.
  • Add Carbon rich ingredient (High C/N Ratio).
  • Add Nitrogen Rich ingredient (Low C/N Ratio).

As long as the ingredients are moist, a pile not heating up over
120˚F indicates not enough nitrogen, while one that smells bad
indicates not enough carbon. Either condition can be
corrected by adding the required ingredient.

Note: Never add anything else, mid course, or your 17 day
timetable will be altered.
SummaryThis magical transformation within such a short time in a
tumbling composter is almost a miracle of nature. The end
product is this sweet smelling black gold that has to be sun
dried for a day or two (10% moisture content) and stored or
used immediately in your garden. The original paper, "
The Rapid Composting Method" from UC Berkeley pioneered a lot of this
study and provided empirical recomendations


Issue
Nothing is
happening. Barrel
doesn't seem to be
heating up at all.
Cause
- Not enough nitrogen
- Not enough oxygen
- Not enough moisture
- Compost is finished.
Resolution
- Make sure you have
enough nitrogen rich
sources like manure,
grass clippings or food
scraps.
- Rotate the Barrel
- A completely dry pile
doesn't compost
http://www.speedycompost.com/composting.html

compost mix calculator

Compost Mix Calculator

Choose a material. Enter a cubic foot measurement. Press TAB. The Total C:N ratio for your recipe will appear.

Aim for a TOTAL C:N RATIO of 30. (25-30 is good. 20-40 is OK.)

Material CuFt LbWet %H2O available
%C
%N available
Lb C
Lb N available
C:N
          TOTALS:

Saturday, March 28, 2009

Email marketing software FREE VERSION Mailintegra How it works?

Mailintegra How it works? http://mailintegra.com/how.aspx
 

Need to send an email to many people but don't want to put in the work of performing a Word Mail Merge or risk having your email being flagged as spam using a BCC? Then Mailintegra Can do this for you.

How the Send Individually button works:
1) You create an email newsletter or other announcement.
2) Add your recipients to the "to" field. or from csv or mdb file
3) You press the "Send Individually" toolbar button.

That's it! Each of your recipients will get an email addressed just to them, in the "To" field, and they will not see any other email addresses, because it's been sent just to them.

Benefits and Features

+ MailIntegra can send HTML pages with embedded graphics and mixed emails that contain both plain text and HTML, if you're not sure that all your recipients can read HTML.
+ Send your message to an unlimited number of addresses 3 lac during one email session with our bulk email software (We tested it with 3 000 000 emails).
+ Save log file dynamically during the sending process.
+ MailIntegra supports handling for subscribe and unsubscribe requests and bounced messages. You can easily adopt it to fully verified opt-in list management for your newsletter marketing campaign.
+ MailIntegra can send HTML pages with embedded graphics and mixed emails that contain both plain text and HTML, if you're not sure that all your recipients can read HTML.
+ MailIntegra Support for importing emails from excel csv and access DataBase
+ MailIntegra supports SMTP email server, you can choose between Carbonl Copies(CC) or Blind Carbon Copies(BCC). Full support for secured SSL SMTP servers, including Gmail.
+ Personalize and merge individual information into any message allows you to create really personal emails with our bulk email software. You can merge recipient's full name, first name last name and email plus you can merge 8 custom fields to body , subject and even attachment.

+ Get Mail Integra Today for Free!!

[ Step By Step Guide ]

Step 1> Determine The Product To Sell Through Bulk Email.
Most of you will likely already have a product to sell but I am sure that some of you out there are attracted by the affiliative monetary benefits that come with bulk emailing.

Step 2> Know The Target Audience That You Want To Reach With Your Bulk Emailing.
Once you have chosen a product, you now have to determine whether you want to send your email to the masses or just to a targeted select group that would be more inclined to buy your products or obtain your services. Targeted bulk mailing campaigns have started to catch on more and more. The response percentage rates are much higher, the flames ( complaints ) are much lower and there can be substantially less work involved. The question that comes up in most peoples minds is likely, "which will I make the most money on, targeting or sending to the masses?". Well there is absolutely no way for me to determine that without knowing the size of the lists, how well they were targeted and how many recipients are deliverable on each list. I suggest that you try both ways and see which works best for you. You must also understand that finding quality targeted email lists is next to impossible as it is very difficult to categorize an email list into different targets as per interests.

Step 3> Make Sure You Know About The Various Issues Related To Bulk Mailing.
The first thing you must know is exactly what you are getting yourself into. Bulk email and bulk emailers themselves are loathed by millions of internet users and 99% of the Internet Service Providers.
Thus it becomes extremely important that you follow the Guidelines of bulk mailing and also have a thorough understanding of the various laws related to bulk mailing. Remember, bulk mailing is only fruitful if it is done in the right manner or it can have negative consequences.

Step 4> Buying The Right Kind Of Email Addresses List.
It is extremely important that you find the right quality and the right quantity of email addresses. We at Mailintegra offer you both - quality and quantity at a rock bottom price. Call 0.98400.66333

Step 5> Choosing The Right Bulk Email Software.
Now that you have decided to use bulk mailing as a major tool for your online marketing campaign and have a huge amount of email addresses, you will need to select among the various bulk mailers that are available on the market. In our package we have included a fully functional program so sweet it bypasses your ISP, can mail 80,000 letters an hour and works while you sleep.

Step 6> Kick Start Your Marketing Campaign
Once you've got a decent amount of email addresses, good bulk mailing software and an internet connection you can start your bulk mailing campaign. Bulk mailing is by far the least expensive form of advertising but it is extremely important to carry out bulk mailing in the right manner.

[ Bulk Mailing Guidelines ]

What's the difference between Bulk Mail and Spam?
Bulk Email IS 100% legal according to all US & Europe laws.
Spam
Spam is the sending of unsolicited commercial email while incorporating means of hiding your identity which is illegal. If you have read our Bulk Email Laws Section, you would already know that federal law ( s.887 ) requires that you use a valid return email address, offer a valid means of removal from your mailing lists and fulfill those remove requests within 5 days of the request. Furthermore, you must also make no attempts to fake or remove the headers in your emails.
Bulk Email ( The Legal Option )
In order to stay within federal laws so that you are bulk emailing and not spamming you must:
- Use a Valid Return Address
- Offer and Honor a means of removal from your mailings.
- Make no attempts for forge or remove the headers from your emails.
If you incorporate the above policies into your everyday routine you will meet all federal guidelines. Do not forget that there are different countries with different laws and although their laws are similar to the federal law we do suggest reading them all as they do affect you.

+ Do Pick a good list from a reputable company
- Don't Decide to harvest one on your own

Buy your email lists from a reputable company like ours rather than harvesting one on your own. Yes, there is software available for purchase (normally around $150) that will search certain areas of the internet and compile an address list for you. The problem with this technique is a large portion of the addresses these types of programs try to collect are news groups. This was fine a few years ago. Now bulk email is becoming more common and many people have become wise to this and have encrypted their addresses in such a way that the software programs will not collect valid email addresses anymore. Even if this problem did not exist, the amount of time it would take you to collect a large amount of addresses would not be time effective for you. Example: If you could collect 500 valid addresses a day, (even this is tough to do sometimes) it would take you more than 50 years to collect the amount of addresses you will have by purchasing our package.

+ Do Deliver a compelling message

- Don't Send out last year's corporate brochure

In the world of direct postal mail, consumers expect to receive slick pitches produced by New York ad agencies. On the internet, a more personal approach generally works better. Keep in mind, of course, that the road-tested rules of direct marketing still apply. It's important to point out the benefits of your product or service and include a powerful call to action that compels the recipient to reply. If you yourself would not respond to your offer, it's unlikely that your recipients will either.

+ Do Keep it short
- Don't Go on and on for several pages

On the internet people want information and they want it now. That's why short, snappy pitches pull well than long-winded appeals that tell a story, paint a picture, tug at heart strings or describe your product's amazing bells and whistles in exhaustive detail. If your message exceeds one screen of text, go back and edit it until it fits. And don't try to squeeze in a second offer in order to save money; it will only lower the response to both of your offers!

+ Do Get to the point
- Don't Make recipients figure it out for themselves
Internet users are busy people who receive dozens or even hundreds of email messages a day. They barely have time to click on your message to open it, much less waste valuable time figuring out what you're trying to sell. If you can't come up with a three-word subject line that sums up your pitch, hit the Delete key and start over.

+ Do Give people an incentive to buy
- Don't Restate your everyday low prices

Internet users tend to be surfers with short attention spans. If you want to inspire them to action, you need to give them a compelling reason to purchase your product or service today. Discounts, free samples and limited-time offers are all powerful incentives to get people to respond. Remember: A mailing that generates 100 inquiries for additional information is ultimately going to be far more successful than a mailing that produces one or two quick sales.

+ Do Include a "call to action"
- Don't Leave recipients wondering what to do

It's not enough to tell recipients to check out your home page. You need to tell them exactly what you want them to do. Should they sign up for a free trial offer? Should they purchase your product today? If you don't ask recipients to do something in particular they may check out your home page then surf away. The strategy that works the best, we've found, is to include in your message a special URL, for example, http://www.yoursite.com/inquiry.html that visitors can click on to go to your site and fill out a form to request additional information. This way you can accurately measure the response to your mailing and follow up on qualified prospects!

+ Do Expect recipients to ask you questions
- Don't Expect to close the all sales in a single message

While generating immediate sales from your mailing is always great, keep in mind that many prospects are going to want more information before they decide to buy. Be sure to have the staff in place to respond to these inquiries immediately or prepare to see your valuable leads disappear!

+ Do Set reasonable goals
-Don't Expect your email campaign to work miracles

In a postal direct marketing campaign, a 2 percent response rate is considered good and a 1 percent response rate is considered acceptable. Email lists, by contrast, tend to generate higher response rates. A publishing client once generated a 13 percent response rate to its free trial subscription offer. In general, however, a 5 percent response to an email offer is good; even a 2 percent response is not a disaster. Remember: Even the most responsive list won't work miracles if the ad copy and the offer don't sparkle too.

+ Do Take your time and start out slow
- Don't Send out 500,000 emails your first night with your new software without testing your ad first.

When you receive your new Bulk List package and bulk email software the first instinct is to send out as many emails as possible as quickly as possible. This is understandable because by purchasing this software you have done your research and know that it can make you a lot of money very quickly. But, you will see much better results by taking your time with the process. Create an ad you like, then let others read it, make sure all the spelling is correct and when you are completely happy with it, send it to only a few thousand people. Wait for your responses to come in. This will let you gauge your response rate for that particular ad. Make a few changes and send to a few thousand more people. Do this over and over until you have reached your maximum response rate. Then send to millions, but not until your ad is ready, otherwise you are letting a lot of potential customers slip through your fingers.

+ Make sure it is legal to own, operate and use bulk e-mail programs in the country or state in which you reside.
+ Never include any information or material or content associated with anything illegal. + E-mail is NOT anonymous and you will get caught sooner or later.
+ Do not send e-mails to people through your ISP (Internet Service Provider) connection if your ISP explicitly forbids bulk e-mail. Contact your ISP to verify if it is allowed if you are unsure. If you violate an ISP service agreement you risk losing your account and/or may be subject to penalties according to their rules. If your ISP forbids bulk mailing you have two options: 1) Select a Bulk Friendly ISP. 2) Spread the amount of mailings out over time and use the e-mail program you are already using to send out mail. Professional e-mail programs send mail at speeds that are too fast for many ISP's to handle. This is how you can violate their terms. Buy smtp from us.
+ Always include an option for e-mail recipients to remove themselves from your list.
+ Permanently remove all those that request to be removed from your list.
+ Do not e-mail letters that contain large files, video files or any extraneous data. The ideal size for an e-mail message should be under 10k in size. This is a basic courtesy only.
+ Never send more than 1 message to the same e-mail box within a short time period. If someone doesn't respond... assume they never will and move on.
+ Never forge or purposely include incorrect and inaccurate header informational fields in your e-mails. This technique may be illegal in your state or country and violates all ISP service agreements.
+ Always supply a valid return e-mail address.
+ Use an alternate or secondary e-mail account as your return address. This will keep your business and personal accounts separate. This is not required but simply recommended.

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Inhaling A Heart Attack: How Air Pollution Can Cause Heart Disease

Bethesda, MD - We are used to thinking of heart disease as a product of genetic factors or lifestyle choices, such as what we eat and how much we exercise. There is another road to heart disease: breathing.

Accumulating evidence indicates that an increase in particulate air pollution is associated with an increase in heart attacks and deaths. Research has begun in the relatively new field of environmental cardiology -- a field that examines the relationship between air pollution and heart disease.

Aruni Bhatnagar of the University of Louisville and Robert Brook of the University of Michigan have organized a symposium Environmental Factors in Heart Disease, to take place April 21 at the Experimental Biology conference in New Orleans. The American Physiological Society is one of the sponsors of the annual conference. Dr. Bhatnagar will speak on Environmental aldehydes exposure and cardiovascular disease, while Dr. Brook will give a talk on Environmental pollution and hypertension. In addition, Araujo Jesus of UCLA will speak on Exacerbation of experimental atherogenesis by ultrafine air pollution, and Murray Mittleman of the Harvard School of Public Health will speak on Air pollution and stroke.

There have been a number of studies connecting pollution with heart disease:

  • A study of six U.S. cities found that people died earlier when they lived in cities with higher pollution levels. A majority of these deaths were due to heart disease.
  • A study of 250 metropolitan areas around the world found a spike in air pollution is followed by a spike in heart attacks.
  • A study in Salt Lake City found that when a nearby steel mill shut down for a period of months, there was a 4-6% drop in mortality. The mortality rose to previous levels when the steel mill reopened.

The people who seem to be most susceptible to environmental pollutants are the people who are already vulnerable, including the elderly and people with coronary artery disease. There is also some evidence that diabetics, women and people who are obese may be at greater risk.

Identifying harmful pollutants
Researchers are trying to find out which pollutants are harmful and how the harmful pollutants work to damage the cardiovascular system. They have focused on smaller, microscopic particles that can get into the lungs and may gain entrance to the blood stream. (The upper airway filters out larger particles that are in smog and other air pollutants before they can cause a problem.)

In addition, researchers have focused on air pollutants, including:

  • ozone
  • nitrates
  • sulfates
  • metals
  • aldehydes

One intriguing statistic is that the risk of heart attack increases in parallel with time spent in traffic the previous day. In animal experiments, Dr. Bhatnagar has found that aldehydes -- a toxic class of chemicals found in most forms of smoke, including cigarette smoke and car exhaust -- increase blood cholesterol levels and activate enzymes that cause plaque in the blood vessels to rupture. When plaque ruptures, it can cause a blood clot, which may block an artery and lead to a heart attack.

Much of Robert Brook's research has centered on the relationship between air pollution and hypertension. Fine- and ultra-fine particles that get into the lung may make their way into the blood vessels. Within 15 minutes of inhaling pollutants, there is a very rapid increase in blood pressure, he said.

Blood vessels react to the pollutants by producing an inflammatory response to attack the foreign matter. However, the inflammatory response itself can set off a complex physiological reaction that is harmful to the blood vessels, Dr. Brook said.

Lessons learned
If you live in an area where pollution levels may be high, you can take steps to reduce the risk of air pollution, Dr. Brook said. During times when air quality is unhealthy, exercise indoors, because indoor air is filtered. If you exercise outdoors, particularly if you're at risk for heart disease, do it when pollutants are at lower levels. Avoid peak traffic times.

The work in environmental cardiology goes on and these researchers, and others, will gather together at Experimental Biology to share their ideas and research findings and plan the next steps in fighting environmental heart disease.

SOURCE: The American Physiological Society

http://www.pollutiononline.com/article.mvc/Inhaling-A-Heart-Attack-How-Air-Pollution-Can-0001?VNETCOOKIE=NO

Friday, March 20, 2009

Arsenic and Flouride removal from potable water

Saleem,

Thank you for responding. I am seeking out low cost fluoride removal as well but have yet to come up with something satisfactory. In my case I am looking for P.O.S.(point of entry) or an in-line filtration system of which R.O. is not desirable for cost and other reasons mentioned below. I am looking to filter my bathing water hence the reason for temperature related questions.

I have heard and read that red clay is being used to remove fluoride which may be a low-cost alternative to alumina, charcoal and reverse osmosis. You may already be aware of these trial technologies...
http://209.85.173.132/search?q=cache:FPOVywA1ccAJ:www.thinkcycle.org/tc-filesystem/download/development_by_design_2002/publication:_terafil_water_filter_for_sustainable_drinking_water_programme/Terafil%2520Water%2520Filter-final%2520paper.doc+red+clay+removes+fluoride&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/conferences/pdfs/20/Padmasir.pdf (sorry, i don't know why the pictures and illustrations are not shown)

Reverse osmosis does indeed remove fluoride and arsenic but I have come to learn that it is not an idyllic solution. R.O. removes all minerals good or bad indiscriminately and reverses the molecular spin of the molecule creating what is called "aggressive" water. While it will not poison you with a contaminant, true, when consumed for longer than 6 months this water will create mineral deficiency leading to sickness and decreased/suppressed cognitive ability and immune system function. When water is forced through the R.O. membrane the smaller lighter molecules tend to get caught behind the membrane and only the larger heavier molecules get forced through. But from a biological stand point it is the smaller lighter molecules that are of the most health benefit to the body. Additionally the plastic membranes used in R.O. systems are made from a type of plastic that leaches toxins into the water. This is why a post filter of carbon or carbon/kdf is always used.

I deeply sympathize with India and many other country's plight to remove fluoride and other contaminants from the water. How ironic that here in the U.S. fluoride and arsenic are being ADDED to our water at a cost to tax payers and a profit for nuclear, coal and phosphate fertilizer industries.

Best of luck to you,
Mary
USA
On Tue, Mar 17, 2009 at 11:55 PM, saleem asraf syed imdaadullah <saleemasraf@gmail.com> wrote:
Dear Madam,
Fluoride removal by activated alumina is beig done on a wide scale across India, But no follow up study is done to find out the result by any agencies in India. So, adsorption in temperatures much higher than 80 degrees F is to be eshtablished yet. Fluoride and Arsenic removal are two very typical problems I have faced personally. Both can be fully removed by Reverse Osmosis , but because of prohibitive installation cost no body is going for it. And using chemicals and resins are not foolproof. If you have some other suggestions, we can apply them.

 Auro aqua safe sachet

............
INREM foundation
please watch these.


and read this please

http://www.inrem.in/fluorosis/solutions.html
basic cost of aa is Rs 200 to 300 per filters. plus activated charcoal Rs 25 to removal traces of aa which is harmful, rest buckets say around rs 200, and other material together , basic making cost wld be around rs 600 to rs 800...sunder

Monday, March 16, 2009

we are far better off than others.....Thank Allah

 
 
Subject: we are far better off than others.....Thank Allah


 


 
 
Again and Again ............

VOTED THE BEST EMAIL OF THIS YEAR



If you think you are unhappy, look at them



If you think your salary is low, how about her?




If you think you don't have many friends...

 



When you feel like giving up, think of this man






If you think you suffer in life, do you suffer as much as he does?






If you complain about your transport system, how about them?






If your society is unfair to you, how about her?

 



Enjoy life how it is and as it comes

Things are worse for others and is a lot better for us

There are many things in your life that will catch your eye
but only a few will catch your heart....pursue those...



           
This email needs to circulate forever...:


 
 











 












 




 




 





 



 
 


 
 
 
 


 

Thursday, March 05, 2009

FeCl3 was found to be generally superior to the other two coagulants in removing all the parameters like color TSS COD

source : http://civil.eng.usm.my/awam07/sample%20paper.doc

Three types of coagulants were examined using standard jar test apparatus, i.e., aluminum sulphate (alum), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulphate (FeSO4). The effects of agitation speed, settling time, pH, coagulant dosages and temperature were exermined. At 300 rpm of rapid mixing and 50 rpm of slow mixing and 60 minutes settling time, higher removals of suspended solids (over 95%), colour (90%) and COD (43%) were achieved at pH 4 and 12. FeCl3 was found to be superior compared with other coagulants. At pH 4 and 12, fair removal of suspended solids was observed at reasonably lower amount of coagulant, i.e., 600 mg/L. However, about 2500 mg/L of coagulant was required to achieve good removals at pH 6. Better removals were achieved at higher temperature.

The coagulation-flocculation process was employed for the treatment of reactive dye wastewaters, with ferric chloride hexahydrate employed as the coagulant. The process was found to be very effective with a more than 99.5% colour removal. Typical representatives of monochlorotriazine reactive dyes, with azo and anthraquinone chromophores, were CI Reactive Red 45 and CI Reactive Green 8, which were chosen as the model dyes. In order to determine the optimum pH range and coagulant concentration, a series of jar tests was done. Further experiments were conducted using a square flocculation tank with turbine impeller applying rapid and slow mix operations. The optimisation of initial rapid mixing, which has an important role in the overall coagulation process efficiency, was carried out. The optimum combination of velocity gradient and time of rapid mix was suggested for reactive dye wastewater treatment. Sedimentation curves for both model dyes were also obtained.

.

FeCl3 was found to be generally superior to the other two coagulants in removing all the parameters.

FeCl3 at pH 4 (at a coagulant dosage of 600 mg/L) and pH 6 (at a coagulant dosage of 2500 mg/L).

exhibited better performance with 90% and 97% removals, respectively.

 

Table 2:Removal of suspended solids, colour and COD at different pH values and dosages of coagulants.

pH

Results

Suspended Solids

Colour

COD

Alum

FeCl3

FeSO4

Alum

FeCl3

FeSO4

Alum

FeCl3

FeSO4

4

Optimum/

economical dosage (mg/L)

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

Initial* concentration

1106

1106

1068

6450

6460

7275

2660

2565

3320

Final** concentration

282

59

582

2554

626

5485

1862

1472

1291

% Removal

74.5

94.7

45.5

60.4

90.3

24.6

30

42.6

61.1

6

Optimum/

economical dosage (mg/L)

2500

2500

2500

2500

2500

2500

2500

2500

2500

Initial* concentration

983

786

878

7005

7100

7003

3015

2980

3066

Final** concentration

291

8

506

3159

249

5953

2204

1648

2422

% Removal

70.4

99

42.4

54.9

96.5

15

26.9

44.7

21

12

Optimum/

economical dosage (mg/L)

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

Initial* concentration

1106

932

1068

6460

6658

7270

3210

3565

3320

Final** concentration

90

52

197

2558

1738

2690

2793

2777

2825

% Removal

91.9

94.4

81.6

60.4

73.9

63

13

22.1

14.9

 
 
 
COD removal efficiency of poly-silicate-aluminium-ferric chloride (PSAFC) and polyferric chloride (PFC) coagulant increased with increasing dose of coagulants, and that the performance of PSAFC and PFC coagulants was superior to PAC coagulant. This difference in efficiency may also be attributed to the copolymers of Si(IV), Al(III) and Fe(III). However, compared with PFC, PSAFC can easily reach high COD removal efficiency below coagulant dose 0.3 g/L. Thus, from the economic point of view, PSAFC is more suitable for treatment of wastewater effluent from dye manufacturing
 
 
Source :http://civil.eng.usm.my/awam07/sample%20paper.doc