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Wednesday, March 14, 2018

WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT BIO GAS PLANT SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT




Decentralised treatment options introduced in new rules.

The earlier rules relied on costly centralised facilities for treating and disposing municipal wastes while approximately 50 per cent of it can be easily turned into compost at the local level. Thus, the draft rules have made the much-needed provision for providing incentives to decentralised waste treatment facilities. 


Considering an average garbage generation per capita per day as 0.450 Kg, we can assume a total garbage generation for a population of 100,000 as 45,000 Kg per day

Proven on wide range of wastes and feedstocks including
  • Livestock and agricultural wastes
  • Biomass
  • Sewage and industrial sludges
  • MSW and catering wastes
  • Food industry wastes
  • Vegetable market waste
  • Restaurant Waste
  • Farm House/Cattle manure waste
  • Slaughter House/Tannery waste
  • Presumed waste
Suitable locations for installation of plant
Hotel premises, army/big establishment canteens (private/ government), residential schools/colleges, housing colonies, religious places / temple trusts, hospitals, hotels, sewage treatment plants, villages, etc.

The Principle:

Add bio degradable Solid waste  into predigestor tank. 
Use of thermophilic microbes for faster degradation of the waste. The growth of thermophiles in the predigestor tank is assured by mixing the waste with hot water and maintaining the temperature in the range of 55-60oC. The hot water supply is from a solar heater. Even one-hour sunlight is sufficient per day to meet the needs of hot water.

After the predigestor tank the slurry enters the main anaerobic tank where it undergoes mainly anaerobic degra-dation by a consortium of archae-bacteria belonging to Methanococcus group.  They produce mainly methane from the cellulosic materials in the slurry.

The undigested lignocellulosic and hemicellulosic materials then are passed on in the settling tank. After about a month high quality manure can be dug out from the settling tanks. Earth worm can be introduced to settling tank to speedup the process.There is no odour to the manure at all. The organic contents are high and this can improve the quality of humus in soil, which in turn is responsible for the fertility.The manure generated is high quality and can be used in fields.This manure can be supplied to farmers at the rate of 4-5 Rs. per Kg. Alternatively municipal gardens and local gardens can be assured of regular manure from this biogas plant.

As the gas is generated in the main tank, the dome is slowly lifted up. This gas is a mixture of methane (70-75%), carbondioxide (10-15%) and water vapours (5-10%). It is taken through GI pipeline to the gas purification unit. Drains for condensed water vapour are provided on line. This gas burns with a blue flame and can be used for cooking as well.
The gas generated in this plant is used for gas lights fitted around the plant. The potential use of this gas would be for a canteen. The purified gas can be fed to bio fuel electric generator to produce electricity. Gas can be bottled and used to run vehicles.




Cost details, saving and payback period from a biogas plant:

The cost details and the savings envisaged from the plant are given in the following table. The life of the plant could be 20-30 years and payback period is 4-5 years.

SUMMERY OF A ONE TON PER DAY FOOD WASTE TO ELECTRICITY PLANT

Capacity (Tons / Day)
Installation Cost (Rs In Lacks)
Monthly Operation and Maintenance Charges (Rs)
Bio gas   Generation 
Organic Manure production (tons /day)
Area Required M2
Power Generated from Bio Gas
Manpower to run plant
1
80
40,000/-
200 cum/day
0.2
450
250 kw/day
4

REVENUE GENERATION:
1. BIO GAS/ELECTRICITY
2.ORGANIC MANURE
3.RECYCLED WASTE LIKE PLASTIC, PAPER etc


ANAEROBIC DIGESTORS WITH GAS DOME
BIO GAS PURIFICATION SYSTEM


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