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Friday, May 06, 2016

Bangladesh Arsenic problem , health effect: and mitigation

Bangladesh  Arsenic problem , health effect: and mitigation
Chronic arsenic exposure is linked to a range of dose-dependent conditions, including cancers of the skin, bladder, kidney and lung,1214 as well as skin lesions, arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus and neuropathy
Three known arsenic-related causes of death – cancer, cardiovascular problems, infection – at an exposure level of 10–50 µg/L. On the basis of Sohel’s cause-specific mortality HRs, about 1 in 16 cancer deaths, 1 in 36 cardiovascular disease deaths and 1 in 19 deaths from infections are attributable to arsenic exposure

Mitigation strategy
Provide water treatment in clusters of 100,200,300 people.
For provision of safe drinking-water:
·         Deeper wells (more than 150 meter) are often less likely to be contaminated.
·         Rain water harvesting in areas of high rainfall such as in Bangladesh. Care must be taken that collection systems are adequate and do not present risk of infection or provide breeding sites for mosquitoes.
·         Use of arsenic removal systems in households (generally for shorter periods) and before water distribution in piped systems.
·         Testing of water for levels of arsenic and informing users.
In order to effectively promote the health of people the following issues should be taken into account:
·         Monitoring by health workers - people need to be checked for early signs of arsenicosis - usually skin problems in areas where arsenic in known to occur.
·         Health education regarding harmful effects of arsenicosis and how to avoid them.

References

·         Arsenic, Fact sheet n°372
Prepared for World Water Day 2001. Reviewed by staff and experts from the Programme for Promotion of Chemical Safety (PCS), and the Water, Sanitation and Health unit (WSH), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva
WHO/WSH/WWD/DFS.13

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/arsenicosis/en/

Source of Article :http://www.assamtribune.com/scripts/detailsnew.asp?id=jan2916/at056


Arsenic and fluoride Contamination in Groundwater  rising in Assam
Ajit Patowary
 GUWAHATI, Jan 28 - Cases of contamination of groundwater in the State are swelling up everyday, making groundwater unsafe for consumption. According to the official data, the number of the State’s districts which have got their groundwater contaminated by fluoride and arsenic has shot up to 22 and 21 respectively from 19 and 20 respectively in 2014-’15.

According to the data available with this newspaper, in 2014-’15, the arsenic affected districts of the State included Baksa, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Cachar, Darrang, Dhemaji, Dhubri, Goalpara, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Kamrup, Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Morigaon, Nagaon, Nalbari, Sivasagar and Sonitpur.
This year, Tinsukia has also been found to be affected by arsenic, raising the number of affected districts to 21, said the sources.
Till 2013-’14, nine districts – Barpeta, Dhubri, Goalpara, Golaghat, Jorhat, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Karimganj and Nagaon – were found to be affected by fluoride.
But in 2014-’15, with the inclusion of Baksa, Cachar, Chirang, Darrang, Dibrugarh, Morigaon, Nalbari, Sivasagar, Sonitpur and Udalguri, the number of affected districts rose to 19.
In 2015-’16, with the inclusion of Bongaigaon, Lakhimpur and Tinsukia, the number of fluoride-affected districts have shot up to 22, sources said.
According to experts here, the trend of rise in the number of fluoride and arsenic affected districts should be studied, together with the impact of such contamination of groundwater, which is used by the people of many areas in these districts for the purpose of drinking as well as domestic use, on human and animal health.
Except in the two districts of Karbi Anglong and Nagaon, no comprehensive health impact studies of groundwater contamination in the rest of the districts has so far been known to have been conducted, said the experts. The origin of fluoride so far is known to be geogenic.

The State’s Department of Mining and Mineral may undertake such studies, involving also the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and the North Eastern Regional Institute of Water and Land Management (NERIWALM) in this regard, said the experts.
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