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Thursday, December 24, 2015

How to make your own HOME BIO GAS PLANT FROM KITCHEN WASTE

KITCHEN (FOOD) WASTE---SMALL MODULAR BIO GAS SYSTEM FOR INDIVIDUAL HOUSES

How much Kitchen Waste do we have to feed on daily basis?

Kitchen waste is high calorie feedstock which contains starch, sugar, cellulose or protein. This material is capable of producing more quantity of methane per ton of feedstock (on dry weight basis). Care must be taken to ensure that kitchen waste like vegetable pcs, leaves, wheat roti / bread or solid left overs are converted in semi liquid form before feeding in the Plant. This can be done either by using food crusher or keeping kitchen waste in Bucket with water for 4 to 5 hours prior to feeding.
  DATA CHART :
Gas Generation Capacity
SIZE OF TANKS (PVC)
Mix Kitchen Waste / day
Water / day
Initial Cow Dung charging
DIA
HEIGHT
0.5 Cu. Mtr
1600
1100
2.5 Kg
2.5 Litrs of Water
20 Kg
1.0 Cu. Mtr
2100
1500
5 Kg
5 Litrs of Water
25 Kg
1.5 Cu. Mtr
2300
1650
10 Kg
10 Litrs of Water
30 Kg
2.0 Cu. Mtr.
2550
1800
20 Kg
20 Litrs of Water
35 Kg

Gas Volume :
One Cu. Mtr. Bio Gas runs approximately 1 Hour at a time. One can cook three meals per day by using 1 cum Bio Gas Plant.
We can use Bio Gas frequently about three times a day with the interval of around 2 to 3 hours.1 cum of bio gas is equal to 0.43 kg of LPG. About 5 kg. of kitchen waste is required for 1 cum. plant. Gas coming out of the plant can be used in the kitchen with the help of biogas stove while the slurry coming out from the outlet can be used as manure. The gas generated will have 60 to 70% methane, 5 to 10% water vapour (moisture) and the balance will be Carbon-di-oxide.

How it works :

The main digester is initially fed with fresh cow dung slurry so that slurry comes out from the slurry outlet pipe. The ratio of dung and water should be 1:1 Subsequently, cattle dung is not needed. Now wait for bio gas production to start in the newly installed plant. It may take 20-30 days for the first bacterial culture to develop and produce gas.
As gas starts producing, one can start feeding the plant daily with  kitchen / vegetable waste in a small quantity and increase it to the recommended quantity after one week.. The ratio of kitchen waste and water should be 1:1.This will facilitate easy flow of waste through inlet  into  the  bio-methanization  plant.  The  value  of    pH  of  the  kitchen  waste  should  be ideally kept  at 7 for optimum production of biogas. Make a slurry of lime by adding one kg lime with 10 liter of water and add it into the digester chamber to make pH 7. Check with pH paper whether the pH is 7 or not regularly.
LOCATION:  Always in a sunny area where temperature is high and as near to kitchen as possible so that gas pipe length is less.

OPERATING COST : The operating cost of Bio Gas plant is very less.  All what required for 1 Cu. Mtr Bio Gas plant is  5 to 6 Kg of Kitchen waste / on dry weight basis. Break even period is approximately 5 to 6 years if Gas is used for cooking application                                  

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Mini Bio-gas plant using food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste

Source Of The Article: http://www.instructables.com/id/Bio-gas-plant-using-kitchen-waste/
Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.

This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.

Material Required:

1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)
2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required

Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.

Additional accessories

A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories
Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)
Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow

Read step by step instruction at: http://www.instructables.com/id/Bio-gas-plant-using-kitchen-waste/

Components of the Bio-gas Plant

The major components of the bio-gas plant are a digester tank, an inlet for feeding the kitchen waste, gas holder tank, an outlet for the digested slurry and the gas delivery system for taking out and utilizing the produced gas.


This project is also useful for students to have a hands-on learning experience in constructing a Mini Bio-Gas Plant, using locally available material.


Material Required:


1. Empty PVC can 50 ltrs capacity: 1 No. (to be used as Digester Tank)

2. Empty PVC can 40 ltrs capacity: 1 no. (to be used as Gas Holder Tank) (Make sure the smaller can fits inside larger one and moves freely)
3. 64 mm dia pvc pipe: about 40 cm long (to be used for feeding waste material)
4. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 50 cm long (fixed inside gas holder tank as a guide pipe)
5. 25 mm dia pvc pipe: about 75 cm long (fixed inside the digester tank as a guide pipe)
6. 32 mm dia pvc pipe: about 25 cm long (fixed on digester tank to act as outlet for digested slurry)
7. M-seal or any water-proof adeshive
8. Gas outlet system: Please see Step 4 below for required materials and construction

Tools required


Do not require many tools here. A hack saw blade for cutting the cans & pipes and a sharp knife for cutting holes on the cans are all the tools we need.


Additional accessories


A single burner bio-gas stove or a Bunsen Burner used in school laboratories

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.


Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.


Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.

Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:


1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.

2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow 

Step one; 50 ltrs capacity PVC can, which will act as the digester unit and removed the top portion of the can, by cutting it with a hack saw blade: 

Step 2: The smaller white can, which will act as the gas holder fits inside the red one. Here, again removed the top of the white can, also with the help of a hack saw blade:


Step 3: 64 mm, 32 mm and 25 mm dia PVC pipes which  will be used for feeding the kitchen waste, guide pipe for the gas holder and guide pipe fixed with the digestion chamber respectively. A small piece of 32 mm dia pipe will be used as outlet for the slurry:

Step 4:

1.  items required for the gas delivery system: got these items from a hardware store


1. Ball valve : one no ( to adjust the gas flow)
2. 'T' joint : one no ( to connect the gas holder and the ball valve)
3. Cap to block one end of 'T' joint : one no
4. Coupling or Adapter : one no (to connect vertical end of 'T' in to the gas collector)
5. Nipple: one no (added to the coupling in to the gas collector)
6. Gas pipe (flexible) : two meters
7. Barb : one no (fitted with the gas pipe, to join with the Ball valve)
8. Clip : one no (used for crimping the barb with the gas pipe and make it leak-proof)
9. Teflon tape : one roll (used as thread tape in all joints)

Step 5: Here I have marked the cuts to be made in the bottom of the gas collection tank. The smaller hole on the left for gas delivery system, center hole for fixing the 32 mm guide pipe and 64 mm hole for fixing the waste feeding pipe on the right side. Made these holes with the help of a sharp knife and hack saw blade.


The next image is Inside of the gas holder showing the 32 mm guide pipe (center) and the 64 mm feeding pipe fixed with M-seal

 Step 6: Top view of the gas holder showing the feeding pipe, central guide pipe and the gas delivery system: I have closed the feeding pipe withe an old lid  (red one). This will facilitate opening the feed pipe only during feeding the system.

Step 7: Digestion tank fitted with the central guide pipe and the outlet pipe for the slurry:

Step 8:

Completed unit. I have removed the gas pipe, so that the joints will get cured without any stress:
Step 9:

Charged the digester tank with cow dung diluted with water. Placed the gas holder tank and left it for two three days. The cow dung slurry started the process of gas forming.

Gas formation started and the gas holder tank gets lifted up. I have placed two bricks on top of the gas holder to get more gas pressure.
Step 10:
Note for students who are doing this as their School Project:

1. Take guidance from your teacher while using the gas in a stove or Bunsen burner.
2. Collect surplus food and wastage during lunch, dilute and feed the system.
3. Fruit peels, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products  can also be used for feeding the system.
4. DO NOT USE eggshells, Onion peels or left-over bones in this system as they will affect the efficient functioning of the system
5. Plant some seedling
6. while feeding, collect the slurry from the outlet, feed the seedlings and watch them grow

Wait for a day or two before feeding the system, allowing all joints to get cured and become leak-proof.

Initially, cow-dung mixed with water will be fed in to the system, which will start the gas formation process. Subsequently, food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste will be diluted with water and used to feed the system. The gas holder will rise along the guide pipes based on the amount of gas produced. We can add some weight on top of the gas holder to increase the gas pressure. When we feed the system, the excess digested slurry will fall out through the outlet pipe, which can be collected, diluted and used as organic manure.

Initial production of gas will consist of oxygen, methane, carbon di oxide and some other gases and will not burn. These gases can be released to the atmosphere by opening the ball valve at least three / four times.

Subsequent gas will consist of about 70 to 80 percent methane and the rest carbon di oxide, which can be used in a single bio-gas burning stove or a Bunsen burner.

Total cost of this proto-type system is about one thousand Indian Rupees (about 20 dollars)

This is a basic prototype of a Bio-gas system using the food waste, decomposable organic material and kitchen waste to produce gas. An one thousand liter capacity Digestion tank will be sufficient for a small household for daily cooking purpose. The bigger commercial models provide a water seal between the digestion tank and gas holder tank.














You can get further information on kitchen waste based mini Bio-gas plant at the following links


http://www.instructables.com/id/Constructing-a-Medium-Sized-Biogas-Plant-Using-Kit/step3/Other-Materials-Required/


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