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Monday, August 30, 2010

Homoeopathy and treatment of Dengue


Dengue fever is a very grave disease and self-medication should not be done. Medical attention is extremely important.it is always advisable to be in touch with the Hospital in case Dengue has been diagnosedSymptoms of Dengue Fever 


Classic dengue fever, or 'break bone fever,' is characterised by acute onset of high fever of 3–14 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. 

Symptoms include: 
- Frontal headache 
- Retro-Orbital pain 
- Myalgia 
- Arthralgia 
- Haemorrhagic Manifestations 
- Rash 
- Low white blood cell count - Gastritis


Homoeopathy acts as an effective supportive treatment in the different stages of the fever. 

As a preventive: eupatorium perfoliatum 200C , 3 drops ,morning evening for 4 days.Later once a week till the epidemic lasts.

 Method of taking the medicine during fever:
1.Take one cup of water
2. Add three drops of eupatorium perfoliatum 200C .
3.If patient is serious, than give two tea spoonful from the cup after every 10 minutes. If the patient is not serious , than give the medicine after each hour.
200 potency is found to be more effective.

This medicine is highly effective in post fever arthralgia (eupatorium perfoliatum Mother tincture 5 drops tds for 3-5 days). amazingly it decreased the joint pain and swelling

You can take it alongwith your allopathic medicine also. There should be a gap of one hour between allopathic medicine and homeopathic medicine. No side effects. Very cheap.
Read more: All you wanted to know about Dengue - Health - Health & Fitness - Life & Style - The Times of India http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health/All-you-wanted-to-know-about-Dengue/articleshow/6460896.cms#ixzz0y76a6UME
5 best homeopathic medicines for Dengue followed by a brief description of their symptoms-
  1. Eupatorium Perfoliatum
  2. Bryonia
  3. Phosphorus
  4. Rhus Tox
  5. Carica Papaya

1. Eupatorium Perfoliatum 200 for dengue fever with bone breaking pains 

It is the most suitable remedy for the treatment of Dengue fever as the symptoms of this medicine almost completely mimic that of Dengue fever.  It is precisely for this reason that this medicine is called ‘Bone Set’, as it is able to relieve the terrible bone pains that accompany the Dengue fever.  It has the same sort of deep bone pains that are almost excruciating in nature. The pain is present in the limbs and the muscles and accompanies a fever which is usually high. There is usually throbbing type of pain in the head. Pain may be felt in the occipital or the back part of the head and also on the top of the head. There is soreness in the eyes or the eyeballs.

2. Bryonia – Homeopathic remedy for dengue fever with intense thirst,joint pains worsen with motion

This medicine also has pains in the whole of the body and the upper as well as the lower limbs along with high grade fever.  The pains are usually stitching and tearing sort of pains. The two distinguishing features of this medicine are increased thirst and that the pains and all sorts of sufferings of the patient are aggravated by motion. In fact, motion of any and every sort tends to aggravate the pains in the body and the limbs. Whenever the patient tries to walk or move or even turn in bed, the pains and the suffering become intolerable. He feels better while at rest and does not want to move. There is so much dryness of the mouth, tongue and other mucous membranes that patient wants to drink a lot of water and ends up drinking a lot at one go. The taste of the mouth is bitter.

3. Phosphorus – Homeopathic medicine for haemorrhagic dengue fever

It is one of the best homeopathic remedies for the haemorrhagic dengue fever. There is burning and numbness of the hands, arms and feet. Intense thirst accompanies the fever, so much so that the patient wants to have cold water or even chilled water. Hemorrhage from any and every part or orifice of the body may be seen. The patient may feel unusually hungry.

4. Rhus Tox 200 – Homeopathic remedy for pains relieved by motion,joint pains get better by motion

It is indicated by the muscular soreness and pains in the body which are relieved only while in motion. The patient cannot rest as it is the worst position for him. The tongue gets coated white while the tip of the tongue remains red and forms a red triangle at the tip.

5. Carica Papaya- Homeopathic remedy for improving platelet count

Carica Papaya is a homeopathic remedy made from papaya fruit. It is a common fruit and its seeds are used to make a homeopathic remedy. It has been seen that it improves the platelet counts in patients whose platelets are falling.

The most specific feature to choose Bryonia Alba is worsening of pains by any movement even in the least degree. This Homeopathic medicine is the best remedy when rest is the main position for relief from pain. Extreme thirst with a dry mouth may be felt along with this specific feature. Rhus Tox is the ideal Homeopathic medicine when a patient experiences relief from pain by movement and worsening of pain by taking rest.

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Gmail DRIVE and Backup software

Gmail Drive

 
Gmail Drive enables you to use your Gmail account as a virtual storage drive that is accessible from Windows Explorer. It adds a drive icon to My Computer that allows you to access your storage space like any other folder, and upload files via drag and drop. The uploaded files appear in your Gmail inbox as messages with the file attached. The messages have a special subject, so you can use the Gmail inbox tools to automatically move them to a separate folder.

http://www.snapfiles.com/reviews/GmailDrive/GmailDrive.html

Gmail BACKUP

 

With every information of the mail you can see the percent of transfer which has been complete. The size of this tool is around 5 Mbs and it will take no time to get installed. After getting installed it will leave a desktop shortcut icon and then you can access it from there. This tool is compatible with all the versions of Windows as it has been checked with Windows 7 64-bit Ultimate edition. Download Gmail Backup

http://www.snapfiles.com/reviews/gmailbackup/gmailbackup.html

 

 

 

For GREEN ENVIRONMENT.....Have Fewer Children

SOURCE:http://environment.about.com/od/activismvolunteering/a/5_important_environmental_actions.htm?nl=1
If you feel you're not doing enough for the environment by replacing your incandescent light bulbs with CFL or LED lights and composting your kitchen garbage, maybe you're ready to make a deeper commitment to environmental stewardship.

Some of these strategies may seem a little radical, but they are among the most valuable actions you can take to protect and preserve Earth's environment.

  • Have Fewer Children—or None
    Overpopulation is arguably the world's most serious environmental problem, because itexacerbates all of the others. The global population grew from 3 billion in 1959 to 6 billion in 1999, an increase of 100 percent in just 40 years. According to current projections, the world population will expand to 9 billion by 2040, a slower growth rate than during the last half of the 20th century but one that will leave us with many more people to accommodate.

    Planet Earth is a closed system with limited resources—only so much fresh water and clean air, only so many acres of land for growing food. As the world population grows, our resources must stretch to serve more and more people. At some point, that will no longer be possible. Some scientists believe we have already passed that point.

    Ultimately, we need to reverse this growth trend by gradually bringing the human population of our planet back down to a more manageable size. This means more people must decide to have fewer children. This may sound pretty simple on the surface, but the drive to reproduce is fundamental in all species and the decision to limit or forgo the experience is an emotional, cultural or religious one for many people.

    In many developing countries, large families can be a matter of survival. Parents often have as many children as possible to ensure that some will live to help with farming or other work, and to care for the parents when they are old. For people in cultures like these, lower birth rates will only come after other serious issues such as poverty, hunger, poor sanitation and freedom from disease have been adequately addressed.

    In addition to keeping your own family small, consider supporting programs that fight hunger and poverty, improve sanitation and hygiene, or promote family planning and reproductive health in developing nations.

  • Use Less Water—and Keep It Clean
    Fresh, clean water is essential to life—no one can live long without it—yet it is one of thescarcest and most endangered resources on our increasingly fragile planet.

    Water covers more than 70 percent of the Earth's surface, but most of that is salt water. Freshwater supplies are much more limited, and today a third of the world's people lack access to clean drinking water. According to the United Nations, 95 percent of the cities worldwide still dump raw sewage into their water supplies. Not surprisingly, 80 percent of all illnesses in developing countries can be linked to unsanitary water.

    Use only as much water as you need, don't waste the water you do use, and avoid doing anything to taint or endanger water supplies.

  • Eat Responsibly
    Eating locally grown food supports local farmers and merchants in your own community as well as reducing the amount of fuel, air pollution andgreenhouse gas emissions required to move the food you eat from the farm to your table. Eatingorganic meat and produce keeps pesticides and chemical fertilizers off your plate and out of rivers and streams.

    Eating responsibly also means eating less meat, and fewer animal products such as eggs and dairy products, or perhaps none at all. It's a matter of good stewardship of our finite resources. Farm animals emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming, and raising animals for food requires many times more land and water than growing food crops.

    Livestock now use 30 percent of the planet's land surface, including 33 percent of farmland worldwide, which is used to produce animal feed. Every time you sit down to a plant-based meal instead of an animal-based meal, you save about 280 gallons of water and protect anywhere from 12 to 50 square feet of land from deforestation, overgrazing, and pesticide and fertilizer pollution.

  • Conserve Energy—and Switch to Renewable Energy
    Walk, bike and use public transportation more. Drive less. Not only will you be healthier and help to preserve precious energy resources, you'll also save money. According to a study by the American Public Transportation Association, families that use public transportation can reduce their household expenses by $6,200 annually, more than the average U.S. household spends on food every year.

    There are dozens of other ways you can conserve energy—from turning off lights and unplugging appliances when they are not in use, to substituting cold water for hot whenever practical and weather stripping your doors and windows, to not overheating or overcooling your home and office. One way to start is to get a free energy audit from your local utility.

    Whenever possible, choose renewable energy over fossil fuels. For example, many municipal utilities now offer green energy alternatives so that you can get some or all of your electricity from wind, solar or other renewable energy sources.

  • Reduce Your Carbon Footprint
    Many human activities—from using coal-fired power plants to generate electricity to driving gasoline-powered vehicles—cause greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.

    Scientists are already seeing significant climate changes that point to the likelihood ofserious consequences, from increasing drought that could further reduce food and water supplies to rising sea levels that will submerge islands and coastal regions and create millions of environmental refugees.

    Online calculators can help you measure and reduce your personal carbon footprint, but climate change is a global problem that requires global solutions and, so far, the world's nations have been slow to find common ground on this issue. In addition to lowering your own carbon footprint, let your government officials know that you expect them to take action on this issue—and keep the pressure on until they do.

Monday, August 23, 2010

a maths formula to help you get cheapest flights

 
in india 21 days advance is fine when the chepeast airline start to increase their fare to the point when the no frills start to cost more than full service airline in last 1-2 days
 
LONDON: Japanese economists have come up with a formula that will help you bag the cheapest holiday flights. It is simple - buy tickets exactly eight weeks in advance and book in the afternoon. 

The mind-boggling maths formula "A = gUG + min(k - g, (1 - g)(1 - r)" has been prepared by Makoto Watanabe and Marc Moller and published in the latest edition of The Economic Journal. 

Japanese economists said that to get the most for your money, book exactly eight weeks in advance and buy the tickets in the afternoon. 

Read more: Now, a maths formula to help you get cheapest flights - Rest of World - World - The Times of India http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/Now-a-maths-formula-to-help-you-get-cheapest-flights/articleshow/6421419.cms#ixzz0xRuOSw4P

Friday, August 20, 2010

MORAL: Women are extremely determined.. Don't mess with them?

Kracking the first joke of the month of ramadhan after coming from jumma prayer
 
and its dengue epidemic in Zakir Nagar, New Delhi. Govt reported cases from the area is 550.
 
And the whole of Delhi is drowned under rain water, yesterday water entered my maruti 800 car while driving near Raj Ghat where Our beloved BAPUJEE is sleeping. ..
 
Dont count this as second Joke as the situation is real and grim
 
Saleem ;~)
................................................................................................................................................
 
The FBI had an opening for an assassin. After all the background checks, 

interviews and testing were done, there were 3 finalists; two men and a 

woman. For the final test, the FBI agents took one of the men to a large 

metal door and handed him a gun. "We must know that you will follow our 

instructions no matter what the circumstances. Inside the room you will 

find your wife sitting in a chair . . . Kill her!!" 





The man said, "You can't be serious. I could never shoot my wife." The 

agent said, "Then you're not the right man for this job. Take your wife 

and go home." 





The second man was given the same instructions. He took the gun and went 

into the room. All was quiet for about 5 minutes. The man came out with 

tears in his eyes, "I tried, but I can't kill my wife." The agent said, 

"You don't have what it takes. Take your wife home." 





Finally, it was the woman's turn. She was given the same instructions, to 

kill her husband. She took the gun and went into the room. Shots were 

heard, one after another. They heard screaming, crashing, banging on the 

walls. After a few minutes, all was quiet. The door opened slowly and 

there stood the woman, wiping the sweat from her brow. "This gun was 

loaded with false bullets" she said. "I had to beat him to death with the 

chair!!" 




MORAL: Women are extremely determined.. Don't mess with them?

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Ramadan timetable 2010 Delhi India

Ramadan timetable 2010 Delhi, India

The timetable is based on New Delhi. People are advised to contact nearest LOCAL mosque to get accurate timing.

Day Ramadan Gregorian Sehr Sunrise Dhuhr Asr IFTAR Isha

Thu 1 12/8 4:19 5:48 12:27 4:01 7:06 8:29

Fri 2 13/8 4:20 5:49 12:27 4:01 7:05 8:28

Sat 3 14/8 4:20 5:49 12:26 4:01 7:04 8:27

Sun 4 15/8 4:21 5:50 12:26 4:01 7:03 8:26

Mon 5 16/8 4:22 5:50 12:26 4:01 7:02 8:26

Tue 6 17/8 4:23 5:51 12:26 4:00 7:01 8:23

Wed 7 18/8 4:23 5:51 12:26 4:00 7:01 8:22

Thu 8 19/8 4:24 5:52 12:25 4:00 7:00 8:21

Fri 9 20/8 4:25 5:52 12:25 3:59 6:59 8:20

Sat 10 21/8 4:26 5:53 12:25 3:59 6:58 8:18

Sun 11 22/8 4:27 5:54 12:25 3:59 6:57 8:17

Mon 12 23/8 4:27 5:54 12:25 3:59 6:56 8:17

Tue 13 24/8 4:28 5:55 12:24 3:58 6:55 8:15

Wed 14 25/8 4:29 5:55 12:24 3:58 6:54 8:13

Thu 15 26/8 4:30 5:56 12:24 3:57 6:52 8:12

Fri 16 27/8 4:30 5:56 12:23 3:57 6:51 8:11

Sat 17 28/8 4:31 5:57 12:23 3:56 6:50 8:10

Sun 18 29/8 4:32 5:57 12:23 3:56 6:49 8:08

Mon 19 30/8 4:32 5:57 12:23 3:56 6:48 8:08

Tue 20 31/8 4:33 5:58 12:22 3:55 6:47 8:07

Wed 21 1/9 4:34 5:59 12:22 3:54 6:46 8:04

Thu 22 2/9 4:34 5:59 12:21 3:54 6:45 8:03

Fri 23 3/9 4:35 6:00 12:21 3:53 6:44 8:02

Sat 24 4/9 4:36 6:00 12:21 3:53 6:42 8:01

Sun 25 5/9 4:36 6:01 12:21 3:52 6:41 7:59

Mon 26 6/9 4:37 6:01 12:20 3:52 6:40 7:58

Tue 27 7/9 4:38 6:01 12:20 3:52 6:39 7:58

Wed 28 8/9 4:38 6:02 12:19 3:51 6:38 7:55

Thu 29 9/9 4:39 6:03 12:19 3:50 6:37 7:54

Fri 30 10/9 4.40 6.04 12.20 3.50 6.35 7.54

Saturday, August 14, 2010

the muslim community wants to catch up

 
SOURCE OF ARTICLE
 
Mewat, a Muslim-dominated district of Haryana, is one of northern India's most backward regions. On August 1, it makes a significant effort to pull itself up by its bootstraps. The region's first engineering college opens its doors. The college was set up by the Haryana Waqf Board and is seen as a pathbreaking project for the Meo Muslims in the area. Aftab Ahmed, 44, a trained lawyer, is the local MLA. He played a key role in making the new college a reality. He tells Deepender Deswal what it means for the Meo community, Mewat and the Muslim community as a whole across India. Excerpts: 

How and when did the Haryana Waqf Board decide to open an engineering college in Mewat? 

In 2008, A R Kidwai, then governor of Haryana, came up with the idea and asked the Haryana Waqf Board to take the initiative. Now, the admission process has started and 42.5% seats are reserved for Muslim students. We hope to begin Masters' degrees and MBA courses in the second and third phases. 

How hard was it to get government clearances for this college? 

Almost the entire process — from procuring land to getting affiliation and approval — has been smooth. The Waqf Board had 13 acres land and four more acres were procured from two nearby villages. The college got AICTE approval and is affiliated to the Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak. The funds were no problem for the Waqf Board, thus, at present there is no need to look to the government for funds. 

What difference will this college make to this backward region? 

The lack of literacy and education has been the main cause of the area's backwardness. But the engineering college will be a catalyst in development. The local people are excited about the project. The college is a symbol of changing times. I hope it will create new aspirations and provide inspiration to the younger generation. 

Why is your region, just 50 km from the national capital, still so underdeveloped and backward? 

Too much focus of the Centre and state governments on developing Gurgaon as a world-class city led to complete neglect of its rural hinterland comprising the Mewat region, which was earlier part of Gurgaon. For almost 25 years, urban Gurgaon remained the priority and nobody went beyond the city to see what's happening in the countryside. People could not raise their voice against this lopsided approach due to lack of awareness and education. The focus, however, has been reset since Mewat was made a new district. Now we have administrative machinery that's dedicated to the district and the state government has been liberal about releasing funds for infrastructure projects in the region. Around Rs 1,200 crore is being spent on a road network in the district. 

Some say the Haryana initiative is part of the Muslims community's desire to change and modernize. Is the Haryana board encouraging other boards in the country to take similar steps in the field of education? 

Earlier people were hesitant in allowing their children to go for higher studies. Now they have realized that an educated and trained child is an asset to the family. People here want to change. Though the Haryana Waqf Board manages many madrassas and other educational institutes, setting up the engineering college is a unique project and I hope other states will follow the Mewat example. 

Is there really a significant change in the way Muslims now view education and professional qualifications? 

The fast changing economic and social scenario in the country has led to a change in the thinking in the community, which had confined itself to a closed way of living. Now they know that they need to open up. The realization that they have been lagging behind has given additional thrust to their efforts. Apart from this college, a medical college at a cost of around Rs 650 crore is under construction in Nuh. It is one of the biggest, it will have 1,000 seats... six other ITIs are being upgraded. These projects will bring big change here.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Prevention of Dengue Fever with Homeopathy



Prevention of Dengue Fever with Homeopathy
Simple Dengue Fever (DF)
The trends of current symptomatology of the epidemic reveals that Eupatorium perfoliatum 200 can be taken twice daily for three days and subsequently at least two doses a week at the interval of three - four day till the epidemic persist for the prevention of dengue fever.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF)

Ipecac in 200 potency can be given twice a day for three days and two doses a week in all the patients those who have already suffered with the dengue fever and are prone for dengue haemorrhagic fever. This drug can also be used alternately with Eupatorium perfoliatum 200 to prevent both the types of dengue fever in so far not infected individuals.
These medicines are safe and can be given to any age group and even to the pregnant women without any side effects, but it is always better if these are used in consultation with the nearest qualified homoeopathic doctor. These medicines can be procured from about 185 chemist shops selling homeopathic drugs in different parts of Delhi.
The public is also informed that Govt. of Delhi is having 73 homeopathic dispensaries and two homeopathic medical colleges and hospitals. All the homeopathic drugs are available free of cost in these institutions/dispensaries. The address and timings of the nearest dispensary to once residence can be obtained from our helpline telephone numbers 24332015 (10AM to 6 PM) and from our website www.delhihomeo.com.

As a preventive: eupatorium perfoliatum 200C , 3 drops ,morning evening for 4 days.Later once a week till the epidemic lasts.

 Method of taking the medicine during fever:
1.Take one cup of water
2. Add three drops of eupatorium perfoliatum 200C .
3.If patient is serious, than give two tea spoonful from the cup after every 10 minutes. If the patient is not serious , than give the medicine after each hour.
200 potency is found to be more effective.

This medicine is highly effective in post fever arthralgia (eupatorium perfoliatum Mother tincture 5 drops tds for 3-5 days). amazingly it decreased the joint pain and swelling


You can take it alongwith your allopathic medicine also. There should be a gap of one hour between allopathic medicine and homeopathic medicine. No side effects. Very cheap.

5 best homeopathic medicines for Dengue followed by a brief description of their symptoms-
  1. Eupatorium Perfoliatum
  2. Bryonia
  3. Phosphorus
  4. Rhus Tox
  5. Carica Papaya

1. Eupatorium Perfoliatum 200 for dengue fever with bone breaking pains 

It is the most suitable remedy for the treatment of Dengue fever as the symptoms of this medicine almost completely mimic that of Dengue fever.  It is precisely for this reason that this medicine is called ‘Bone Set’, as it is able to relieve the terrible bone pains that accompany the Dengue fever.  It has the same sort of deep bone pains that are almost excruciating in nature. The pain is present in the limbs and the muscles and accompanies a fever which is usually high. There is usually throbbing type of pain in the head. Pain may be felt in the occipital or the back part of the head and also on the top of the head. There is soreness in the eyes or the eyeballs.

2. Bryonia – Homeopathic remedy for dengue fever with intense thirst,joint pains worsen with motion

This medicine also has pains in the whole of the body and the upper as well as the lower limbs along with high grade fever.  The pains are usually stitching and tearing sort of pains. The two distinguishing features of this medicine are increased thirst and that the pains and all sorts of sufferings of the patient are aggravated by motion. In fact, motion of any and every sort tends to aggravate the pains in the body and the limbs. Whenever the patient tries to walk or move or even turn in bed, the pains and the suffering become intolerable. He feels better while at rest and does not want to move. There is so much dryness of the mouth, tongue and other mucous membranes that patient wants to drink a lot of water and ends up drinking a lot at one go. The taste of the mouth is bitter.

3. Phosphorus – Homeopathic medicine for haemorrhagic dengue fever

It is one of the best homeopathic remedies for the haemorrhagic dengue fever. There is burning and numbness of the hands, arms and feet. Intense thirst accompanies the fever, so much so that the patient wants to have cold water or even chilled water. Hemorrhage from any and every part or orifice of the body may be seen. The patient may feel unusually hungry.

4. Rhus Tox 200 – Homeopathic remedy for pains relieved by motion,joint pains get better by motion

It is indicated by the muscular soreness and pains in the body which are relieved only while in motion. The patient cannot rest as it is the worst position for him. The tongue gets coated white while the tip of the tongue remains red and forms a red triangle at the tip.

5. Carica Papaya- Homeopathic remedy for improving platelet count

Carica Papaya is a homeopathic remedy made from papaya fruit. It is a common fruit and its seeds are used to make a homeopathic remedy. It has been seen that it improves the platelet counts in patients whose platelets are falling.

The most specific feature to choose Bryonia Alba is worsening of pains by any movement even in the least degree. This Homeopathic medicine is the best remedy when rest is the main position for relief from pain. Extreme thirst with a dry mouth may be felt along with this specific feature. Rhus Tox is the ideal Homeopathic medicine when a patient experiences relief from pain by movement and worsening of pain by taking rest.

Thursday, August 05, 2010

HOSPITAL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT -- ETP & STP





STP FLOW CHART
HOSPITAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT:

CATEGORIES OF BIO MEDICAL WASTE (BMW)
https://www.dpcc.delhigovt.nic.in/bio-medical-waste.html

(Please refer Schedule I , Click here to see the Schedule I)
Category No. 1      Human Anatomical Waste
Category No. 2      Animal Waste
Category No. 3      Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste
Category No. 4      Waste sharps
Category No. 5      Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs
Category No. 6      Soiled Waste
Category No. 7      Solid Waste
Category No. 8      Liquid Waste
Category No. 9       Incineration Ash
Category No. 10    Chemical Waste
reatment Of Bio Medical Waste 

Category No.1    Incineration /deep burial

Category No.2    Incineration /deep burial

Category No.3    Autoclaving/microwaving/incineration

Category No.4    Disinfection(chemical treatment)/autoclaving/microwaving and 
                            mutilation/shredding.

Category No.5    Incineration/destruction/ and drugs disposal in secured landfills

Category No. 6    Incineration/autoclaving/microwaving

Category No.7    Disinfection by chemical treatment/autoclaving/ microwaving and 
                           mutilation/ shredding

Category No.8    Disinfection by chemical treatment & discharge into drains

Category No.9    Disposal in municipal land fill

Category No.10    Chemical treatment and discharge into drains for liquids and secured 
                              landfill for solids. 
Standards for Liquid Waste



PARAMETERS
PERMISSIBLE LIMITS
pH
6.5-9.0
Suspended Solids
100 mg/L
Oil & Grease
10 mg/L
BOD
30 mg/L
COD
250 mg/L
Bio-assay Test
90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent

These limits are applicable to those hospitals which are either connected with sewers without terminal Sewage Treatment Plant or not connected to public sewers. 

For discharge into public sewers with terminal facilities , the General Standards as notified under the Environment (Protection ) Act, 1986, shall be applicable . 
Click here to see the General Standards(Schedule VI) 

Main parameters are given below:




PARAMETERS
PERMISSIBLE LIMITS
pH
5.5-9.0
Suspended Solids
600 mg/L
Oil & Grease
10 mg/L
BOD
350mg/L
Bio-assay Test
90% survival of fish after 96 hours in 100% effluent

DPCC has taken decision that Hospital having 50 beds or more shall install Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for the treatment of waste water generated and for recycling of treated effluent for use in horticulture, air conditioning/ cooling plants and flushing of toilet etc. 
In hospitals that have ETP facility, the treatment is carried out using special scientific process and generally involves three stages, primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of treatment. [14]

 Average water consumption 750 liter / bed / day. Please calculate daily water consumption from borewell to over head tank using water meter. 80% of total water in nover head tanks is wasted as waste water. This should be the capacity of the STP to be installed at the hospital. (See table below)
Capacity of overhead tank from where water is distributed = A Liter
Number of times Over Head Tanks Filled up in a day = B Nos
Total water requirement for use at different points = A x B Liter/day
Quantity of Effluent , liter per day = 80 % of ( A x B )
Sourcess of waste water
1. Bed in Hospital= Nos @ 500 liter per bed = Liter
2. Employee in Hospital = nos @ 40 liter per employee= Liter
3. Hostels- Persons = nos @ 150 liters per person. = Liter
4. Kitchen Meals= nos@ 10 liter per meal = Liter
So, Total Quantity of discharge: --------- liter per day
Health Stream Literature Summary - Issue 46 - June 2007
The treatment of hospital waste water: an appraisal
Pauwels, B. and Verstraete, W. (2006) Journal of Water & Health, (4) 405-416.


Primary treatment

Consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a basin where the settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid subjected to secondary treatment. Primary treatment usually removes from 30 to 40% of the BOD. After this treatment the BOD and COD levels usually comes down to 25% of its initial levels.

Secondary treatment

Removes the dissolved and suspended biological matter and is typically performed by indigenous, water borne microorganisms in a managed habitat. This treatment uses microbial degradation, aerobic or anaerobic, to reduce the concentration of the organic compounds. The combined use of primary and secondary treatment reduces approximately 80 to 90% of the BOD. In this stage, there is settling down of the suspended solid contents of the biological waste as thick slurry called sludge, while the treated fluid undergoes tertiary treatment. Through this process, 95% of the pollutants from the waste water are removed.

Tertiary treatment

Uses chemicals to remove inorganic compounds and pathogens. This is the final stage of treatment where the effluent after secondary treatment first is mixed with sodium hypochlorite and then the effluent is passed through dual media filter (DMF) and activated carbon filter (ACF) where sand, anthracite, and activated carbon are used as filtration media. Finally, the treated water is let into a small well to recharge the water table. This treated waste water now can be used for gardening, toilets, and laundry purposes. [15]
Chemical treatment usually involves the use of 1% sodium hypochlorite solution with a minimum contact period of 30 min or other standard disinfectants like, 10-14 gm of bleaching powder in 1 l water, 70% ethanol, 4% formaldehyde, 70% isopropyl alcohol, 2 5% povidone iodine, or 6% hydrogen peroxide

WASTE WATER FLOW RATES IN DIFFERENT UNITS:
Waste water consist primarily of used water, the water that reaches the sewer . For different units it is different as shown in the chart .
Source
Unit
Range l/u/d
Typical l/u/d
Apartment
Person
200-340
260
Hotel resident
Resident
150-220
190
Hotel Employee
Employee
30-50
40
Individual Home
Person
190-350
280
Airport
Passenger
8-15
10
Automobile service station
Vehicle served
150-200
200
Restaurant
Meal
8-15
10
Office
Employee
30-65
55
Laundry
Machine
1800-2600
2200
Laundry
Wash
180-200
190
Hospital medical
Bed
Employee
500-950
20-60
650
40
School
Student
20-65
40
School boarding
Student
200-400
280
For Industries
80% of water used used in production will be released as waste water
Meat processing
Mg
15-20 cu mtr/ Mg
Milk Products
Mg
10-20 cu mtr/Mg
Bread
Mg
2-4 cu mt/Mg
Beer
Mg
10-16 cu mtr/Mg
Whisky
Mg
60-80 cu mtr/Mg
Paper Pulp
Mg
250-800 cu mt/ Mg
Paper
Mg
120-160 cu mtr/Mg
Textile Bleaching (Cotton)
Mg
200-300 cu mtr/Mg
Textile Dyeing (Cotton)
Mg
30-60 cu mtr/Mg
REF : WASTE WATER ENGINEERING : TREATMENT , DISPOSAL AND REUSE--- METCALF & EDDY .