Dear Saleem,These are more likely to be publicity materialrather than actual accomplishments, I suppose.Thanks,Ganesan. :~)Brazilian town turning human waste into clean energy
PETROPOLIS, Brazil (AFP) High in the cool hills of eastern Brazil, this tourist hot spot also known as the Imperial City is attracting worldwide attention thanks an innovative scheme to recycle human sewage.
It has fostered a relatively simple idea now gaining traction in other parts of Latin America and as far afield as Spain, as nations struggle with the impact of burgeoning populations compounded by dwindling supplies of fuel and water.
Here bio-digesters -- specially designed organic enzymes and bacteria -- are used to break down waste water and turn it into an alternative energy sources such as gas.
During three fermentation processes, the bio-digesters are unleashed on human effluent and as they break it down they produce a bio-gas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, which can then be piped into homes for use in heating or cooking.
"In fact this is a greenhouse gas, which is harmful to the atmosphere when it is unleashed, but can be collected to be useful," said Jorge Gaiofato, technical director at the Environmental Institute (OIA), the non-governmental organization behind the scheme.
Today there are more than 80 such bio-digesting ponds in Petropolis, a town some 65 kilometers (40 miles) from Rio de Janeiro on the east coast, which was once the summer residence of the Brazilian emperors in the 19th century.
The results of this 21st century project are exciting a lot of interest. Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Haiti have all established similar schemes.
The beauty is that nothing -- literally -- goes to waste. The mud left over from the bio-digesting process can be used as fertilizer for crops and the remaining water, now cleaned of noxious elements, is emptied back into neighboring rivers.
Gaiofato hopes the scheme will become more widespread in Brazil, where according to official statistics less then half of towns and villages collect their waste water and only 20 percent of it is subsequently treated.
This clean energy is now supplied to five of the city's poorer districts, providing gas for cooking and heating to about 20,000 people.
"The bio-digester recycles and reuses the waste water. Normally treating such waste is the job of the government as there is too much of it. But, the bio-digester is a solution for places where there is no existing network," added Gaiofato.
And the system is cheap. According to the non-government organization the cost of just one bio-digester is three times less expensive than installing traditional water treatment plants.
One bio-digester, which can serve four houses, costs just 1,000 to 1,500 dollars to set up.
If 10 houses use such a system, that produces enough gas for one household to be self-sufficient in gas.
The company Aguas do Imperador, which is charge of the sewerage system in Petropolis, has even installed a bio-digester system in the city's slums.
Two months ago Gean Carlos dos Santos, a 35-year-old teacher, decided to remove his septic tank to install a bio-digester, which he helped to build.
"I had a septic tank, but after taking an ecology course, I decided to change it for a bio-digester. Now we are not polluting the river any more and we get to use bio-gas" for cooking.
He has saved so much on his energy bills, that he is now thinking of using bio-gas to heat his water.
OIA says its project was initially designed to help poor communities deal with a growing sanitation problem and provide them with alternative sources of energy for cooking and heating other than wood or coal.
But as the world wakes up to the problem of global warming and limited fossil fuels, the use of bio-digesters is catching on among more well-off communities.
Copyright © 2009 AFP. All rights reserved. More »
Tuesday, June 30, 2009
What is Female Masturbation?
Characteristics of Female Masturbation
Health Benefits of Female Masturbation
Psychological and emotional benefits of masturbation
HOW TO DO IT:
Finally, gently slide your forefinger down the sides of the clitoris and rotate around for about 10 strokes. Massage the head of the clitoris in circular motions using your forefinger and thumb. "You may feel it growing as it becomes more excited, and with the clitoris containing about 8,000 nerve fibers, don't be surprised if she has a body-melting, earth-shattering orgasm," says Cadell.
How to make love to your wife in islam and Science.
In India several expert groups have examined the need for a concept like LLP .These include the Abid Hussain Committee 1997, the Naresh Chandra Committee on Private Companies and Partnerships 2003 and the Irani Committee for new Company Law, 2005. The Naresh Chandra Committee particularly analyzed the concept in detail under following parameters:
- Application of the LLP Regime;
- Incorporation, Registration and Number of Partners;
- Limited Liability;
- Financial Safeguards; and
Justifying the need to introduce LLP the Committee opines:
An earlier version of the LLP Bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha around 2 years ago on 15th December, 2006 and was referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance. The Standing Committee submitted its report on 27th November, 2007. Finally the Limited liability partnership Act was passed in 2008 with effect from 1 April, 2009.
In order to the appreciate the concept of LLP it is important to understand the broad differences between the Limited liability partnership and Company( under Company Act 1956) ;and Limited liability partnership and the Partnership under the Partnership Act,1932. The foremost difference between an LLP and a company lies in that the internal governance structure of a company and is regulated by statute (i.e. Companies Act, 1956) whereas for a Limited liability partnership it would be by a contractual agreement between partners. The dichotomy of management-ownership as prevalent in a company is palpably absent in a limited liability partnership. LLP will have lesser compliance requirements and will have more flexibility as compared to a company.
Talking about the differences between the general Partnership and the Limited Liability Partnership, it was abundantly clear the features of the traditional partnership as governed by the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 have increasingly become redundant. The main problems with this anachronistic Act are that
- it does not recognize the distinction between a partnership and its members (i.e. the partners);
- it imposes unlimited liability on each partner for acts committed by any other partner and by the partnership as a whole.
In case of general Partnership as per the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, each of the partners is jointly and severally liable for any liability arising out of or in respect of the partnership. The LLP is a separate legal entity with unlimited capacity where no member or partner is liable on account of the independent or unauthorized actions of one's partner, and whose liability is limited to the respective stake of each in the LLP. The members of an LLP would have the option to have a general partner or more with unlimited liability, but it would not shield the partners from legal liability arising out of their own personal acts which are not done for and on behalf of the LLP, that is, any act done beyond the acts and powers of the partners as laid down in the incorporation document. Also the main benefit in an LLP is that it is taxed as a partnership, but has the benefits of being a corporate, or more significantly, a juristic entity with limited liability.
Now let me briefly talk about the salient features of the LLP Act , 2008:-
- The LLP will be, as already mentioned, an alternative corporate business vehicle that would give the benefits of limited liability but would allow its members the flexibility of organizing their internal structure as a partnership based on an agreement.
- The Act does not restrict the benefit of LLP structure to certain classes of professionals only and would be available for use by any enterprise which fulfills the requirements of the Act.
- The LLP will be a separate legal entity.
- It will have perpetual succession.
- The rights and duties of partners in LLP, will be governed by the agreement between partners and the partners have the flexibility to devise the agreement as per their choice. The duties and obligations of Designated Partners shall be as provided in the law.
- Indian Partnership Act, 1932 shall not be applicable to LLPs and there shall not be any upper limit on number of partners in an LLP unlike an ordinary partnership firm where the maximum number of partners cannot exceed 20.
- An LLP shall be under obligation to maintain annual accounts reflecting true and fair view of its state of affairs. Since tax matters of all entities in India are addressed in the Income Tax Act, 1961, the taxation of LLPs shall be addressed in that Act.
- LLP shall maintain annual accounts. However, audit of the accounts is required only if the contribution exceeds Rs. 25 lacs or annual turnover exceeds Rs.40 lacs.
Syed Burhanur Rahman is an alumnus of St. Stephen's College and Campus Law Center, Delhi University. A Quiz aficionado, he has featured in premier T.V Quiz shows including Mastermind India(BBC),University Challenge Quiz(BBC) and Nat Geo Genius Quiz (National Geographic Channel).An Attorney working with INDUS G & D Law(Delhi),his practice areas include Corporate Law, IPR and Taxation Law .
An introduction to MBBR (moving bed biofilm reactor )/ FM Reactor/ FAB Reactor wastewater treatment
When communities of microorganisms grow on surfaces, they are called biofilms. Microorganisms in a biofilm wastewater treatment process are more resilient to process disturbances compared to other types of biological treatment processes. Thus, biofilm wastewater treatment technologies can be considerably more robust especially when compared to conventional technologies like activated suldge process..
In the MBBR biofilm technology the biofilm grows protected within engineered plastic carriers, which are carefully designed with high internal surface area. These biofilm carriers are suspended and thoroughly mixed throughout the water phase. With this technology it is possible to handle extremely high loading conditions without any problems of clogging, and treat industrial and municipal wastewater on a relatively small footprint.
PHOTO OF MOVING MEDIA (BIO CARRIERS)
The MBBR biofilm technology is based on specially designed plastic biofilm carriers or biocarriers that are suspended and in continuous movement within a tank or reactor of specified volume. The design of associated aerators, grids, sieves, spray nozzles and other integral parts to the reactor is also of great importance in making up the system as a whole .
The industrial and municipal wastewater is led to the MBBR treatment reactor where biofilm, growing within the internal structures of the biocarriers, degrade the pollutants. These pollutants that need to be removed in order to treat the wastewater are food or substrate for growth of the biofilm. The biocarrier design is critical due to requirements for good mass transfer of substrate and oxygen to the microorganisms . Excess biofilm sloughs off the biocarrier in a natural way .
An aeration grid located at the bottom of the reactor supplies oxygen to the biofilm along with the mixing energy required to keep the biocarriers suspended and completely mix within the reactor.
Treated water flows from reactor through a grid or a sieve, which retains the MBBR biocarriers in the reactor. Depending on the wastewater, the reactors are may be equipped with special spray nozzles that prevent excessive foam formation.
Warm up some massage oil by rubbing it with both hands, then spread it all over his penis and testicles. Place one hand on the shaft of his penis, and start stroking it in an up and down motion, says Cadell. Meanwhile, use the other hand to gently roll his testicles in your palm. Do this in slow-mo for at least a few minutes.
"On the female genitals, it's best to switch to a water-based lubricant because if oil gets inside the vagina, it can cause irritation," says Cadell. Make sure to warm the lube with your hands first before placing them in her vagina. Nearly 50 percent of men and women who have used lube say that it makes it easier to have an orgasm
Subject: body massage spa premature ejaculationYONI MASSAGEThe treatment of premature ejaculation, using the "pause" and "squeeze" procedures developed by Semans and by Masters and Johnson, has been found to be highly effective. Research has demonstrated that such procedures work well in group as well as in individual treatment, and in self-help programs; they can be practiced in individual masturbation with relatively good transfer of therapeutic gains when sex with a partner is resumed. Success rates of 90 percent to 98 percent are reported.
In the stop-start or pause procedure, the penis is manually stimulated until the man is fairly highly aroused. The couple then pauses until his arousal subsides, at which time the stimulation is resumed. This sequence is repeated several times before stimulation is carried through to ejaculation, so the man ultimately experiences much more total time of stimulation than he ever has before and thus learns to have a higher threshold for ejaculation. The squeeze procedure is much like the stop-start procedure, with the addition that when stimulation stops, the woman firmly squeezes the penis between her thumb and forefinger, at the place where the glans of the penis joins the shaft. This squeeze seems to further reduce arousal. After a few weeks of this training, the necessity of pausing diminishes, with the man able to experience several minutes of continuous penile stimulation without ejaculating. Next, the couple progresses to putting the penis in the vagina but without any thrusting movements. If the man rapidly becomes highly aroused, the penis is withdrawn and the couple waits for arousal to subside, at which point the penis is reinserted. When good tolerance for inactive containment of the penis is achieved, the training procedure is repeated during active thrusting. Generally, two to three months of practice is sufficient for a man to be able to enjoy prolonged intercourse without any need for pauses or squeezes