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Wednesday, July 23, 2008

Vermi Composting photographs

for photographs of vermicompost plant
 
 
 
Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

project report vermi composting

 
 
Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

COST ESTIMATE VERMI COMPOST PLANT

Vermi Compost

Vermi compost is a newly developed compost fertiliser which can be used largely instead of inorganic as well as organic fertiliser. Vermicomposting is most suited interms of a balance between cost and effectivity. The production of vermi-compost involves breeding of earth worms in a mixture of cowdung, soil and agriculture residue till the whole mass is converted into cast. This cast is then collected to give the vermicompost. With an eye to all benefits, increasing attention is being focused on breeding of earth worm (vermiculture) and their subsequent use in preparation of manure called vermi compost. There are few organised sectors and few state government as well as central government, some of private organisation also manufactured vermicompost. There is requirement of good advertisement and consciousness towards farmers to the good effect over the existing fertiliser to make popularity of the vermicompost. The demand will be double or tripple in near future. There is good scope for new entrepreneurs.
Plant capacity: 5.0 MT/Day Plant & machinery: Rs. 8.0 Lacs
Working capital: Rs. 9.2 Lacs T.C.I: Rs. 54.3 Lacs
Return: 48.19% Break even: 42.53%
Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

Vermi compostion in INDIA

 source:http://209.85.175.104/search?q=cache:_q99uaPixzIJ:fincomindia.nic.in/fincomnet/rpt_intra/swm_rpt%2520part1.doc+details+design+of+vermi+composting+plant+11+MT+per+day&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=in
 
Introduction

This chapter studies in details six ongoing waste management schemes/programmes/projects in India. While two of these projects concentrate on composting and recycling, four concentrate on waste-to-energy projects. The earlier study includes the Bangalore model and the Jaipur model. For waste-to-energy projects, facilities in Lucknow, Hyderabad, Vijaywada and Nagpur have been studied. The studies also highlights on the environmental and cost sustainability of these projects/programmes. Inputs from these studies have been used to develop pilot cases, along with their cost and financing options; these are outlined in the following chapter. In order to facilitate understanding of the technologies used in these eight cities, short write-ups on some of the technologies used/available have been outlined below. Merits and demerits of some of these technologies are also outlined to assist any policy maker in identifying the best alternate solution to waste disposal depending on local conditions.

3.2 Technologies Available for Municipal Waste Disposal

3.2.1 Composting

Composting is defined as a controlled process involving microbial degradation of organic matter (MoEF, 1999). There are various types of composting, but they can be categorised into three major segments – aerobic composting, anaerobic composting and vermicomposting.

Anaerobic Composting

In this form of composting, the organic matter is decomposed in the absence of air. Organic matter may be collected in pits and covered with a thick layer of soil and left undisturbed for 6-8 months. The compost so formed may not be completely converted and may include aggregated masses (CEE, 2000).

Aerobic Composting

A process by which organic wastes are converted into compost or manure in presence of air, aerobic composting may be of different types. The most common is the Heap Method where organic matter needs to be divided into three different types and need to be placed in a heap one the other, covered by a thin layer of soil or dry leaves. This heap needs to be mixed every week and it takes about 3 weeks for conversion to take place.

In the Pit Method the same process as above in done, but in pits specially constructed/dug out for this purpose.  Mixing has to be done every 15 days and there is no fixed time in which the compost may be ready (depends on soil moisture, climate, level of organic material, etc.). The Berkley Method uses a labour intensive technique and has precise requirements of the material to be composted. Easily biodegradable material, such as grass, vegetable matter, etc., are mixed with animal matter in the ratio of 2:1. This is piled and mixed at regular intervals. Compost is usually ready in 15 days (CEE, 2000).

Vermicomposting

Vermicomposting involves use of earthworms as natural and versatile bio-reactors for the process of conversion. Vermicomposting is done in specially designed pits where earthworm culture also need to be done. As compared to above, this is a much more precision-based option and requires overseeing of work by an expert. It is also a more expensive option (especially O&M costs are high). However, unlike the above two options, it is a completely odour less process making it a preferred solution in residential areas. It also has an extremely high rate of conversion and so quality of end product is very high with rich macro and micro nutrients. The end product also has the advantage that it can be dried and stored safely for longer period of time. 

3.2.2 Waste-to-Energy: Thermo-Chemical Conversion

Incineration

Incineration is the process of controlled combustion at around 800oC for burning of wastes and residue, containing combustible material. The heat generated during this process can be recovered and utilised for production of steam and electricity. This method is usually used to achieve maximum volume reduction, especially where there is a shortage of landfill facilities. It is also usually a cost effective method o disposal (CPCB, 2000). However, in Indian conditions, it is not always very successful due to the low calorific value of Indian wastes (low combustible material). Also it is not classified by the MNES as an innovative practice and so looses out on many incentives otherwise provided by the MNES for WTE plants.

Pelletisation

This refers to creation of fuel pellets (also called refuse derived fuel or RDF) from MSW. Pelletisation generally involves segregation of incoming waste in to low and high calorific material followed by separate shredding. Different heaps of shredded wastes are mixed together in suitable proportions and solidified to produce RDF pellets. Pellets are small cylindrical pieces with a calorific value of 400Kcal/kg. Since this is quite close to calorific value of coal, it can be used as a substitute. However, calorific value of the pellets completely depend on the calorific value of the waste stream which needs to be sorted in Indian conditions to allow only the right type of waste to come through.  

Pyrolysis/Gasification

In this process, combustible material is allowed to dry/dewater and is then subjected to shredding. These are then incinerated in oxygen deficient environment (pyrolysis). Gas produced from this process can be stored and used as combustible source when required. However, quality of the gas also depends largely on quality of waste stream and requires high calorific value waste inputs. Different types of pyrolysis/gasification systems are available which can be used depending on local conditions; some of these include Garrets Flash Pyrolysis process, ERCB process, Destrugas Gasification process, Plasma Arc process, Slurry Carb process, etc. Recent studies for Indian scenario clearly show that while net power generation for thermo-chemical conversion processes is around 14.4 times the quantity of waste input (in kW), the same for bio-chemical conversion process is 11.5 times the waste inputs (provided 50% of waste inputs are volatile solids). However, in terms of environmental impact, the later is far safer option than the previous.

Bio-Methanation

While bio-methanation is generally classified as a WTE process, unlike the previous three alternatives, which use thermo-chemical conversion, this uses bio-chemical conversion similar to composting process. It basically taps the methane gas generated from the bio-chemical reaction in wastes dumped in aerobic digesters.

Landfill Gas Recovery  

Energy Recovery from Waste-to-Energy Plants  

Recent studies for Indian scenario clearly show that while net power generation for thermo-chemical conversion processes is around 14.4 times the quantity of waste input (in kW), the same for bio-chemical conversion process is 11.5 times the waste inputs (provided 50% of waste inputs are volatile solids). However, in terms of environmental impact, the later is far safer option than the previous.  
 

Similar in principal to the bio-methanation option, this process taps and stores gas produced in sanitary landfills. Typically, landfill gas production starts within a few months after disposal of wastes and generally lasts till 10 years or more depending on composition of waste and availability/distribution of moisture.

3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Options

Table 4.1 and 4.2 highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of various options discussed have been outlined in the following page.


 

Table 3.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Waste Disposal Systems (in Indian Scenario) – Composting

S.No Item Aerobic Composting Anaerobic Composting Vermicomposting
Foul odour in process Yes Yes No
Quality of End Product Moderate Moderate to Good Good to Excellent
Time for Composting 2-3 weeks 6-8 months (minimum) 6 months (minimum)
Use for production of gas (CH4) No Yes (in controlled environment) No
Attracts rodents, pests, dogs, etc. Yes No No
Need for Constant Monitoring Low High Very High
Storage capacity of end product Low Low High
Market demand Moderate Moderate High (for agriculture)
Power requirements Yes (if mechanised) No Yes
Intensity of skilled labour requirement Low Moderate High
Land requirement Low Moderate High
Quality of waste segregation Moderate High Very high
Leachate pollution High High Low
Contamination of aquifers (large scale) High Moderate to high Low
Capital Investment Moderate Moderate High
O&M Costs Moderate Moderate High
 


 

Table 3.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Waste Disposal Systems (in Indian Scenario) – Waste-to-Energy

S.No Item Incineration Pelletisation Pyrolysis Bio-Methanation Landfill Gas Recovery
Requirement for segregation High Very High High High  
Energy recovery (in optimum conditions) Around 14 times waste stream Around 14 times waste stream Around 14 times waste stream Around 11 times waste stream Around 11 times waste stream
Direct Energy Recovery Yes No Yes No No
Overall efficiency in case of a small set up Low Low Moderate High Low
Efficiency in case of high moisture Very low Very low Low Moderate Moderate to High
Land requirement Low Low Moderate Low to Moderate High to very high
Transportation costs Moderate High High High Very high (depends on location of landfill)
Ability to tackle bio-medical and low-hazard waste Yes No Yes (to some extent) No No
Concerns for toxicity of product High NA NA NA Moderate to High
Leachate Pollution None None None High (in case of no protection layer) High (Landfill)

Low (Sanitary Landfill)

Concern for Atmospheric Pollution High (not easy to control) Moderate Moderate (easy to control) Low Moderate
Sustainability of source/ waste stream Moderate Low Low Low High
Capital Investment High Very High Very High Very High High
Power requirements          
 


 

3.4 Decentralised Waste Management and Composting – Bangalore

Background

This study concerns entirely with the Integrated Urban Environment Improvement Project (IUEIP). The IUEIP was launched in areas falling under jurisdiction of Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) in 1998 and was piloted in 4 BDA schemes. Supported by the Norwegian Embassy (NORAD), this project was designed as a collaborative effort of NGOs, government agencies and resident groups. The IUEIP addressed four main components:

  • Integrated plan for environment management.
  • Preparation of GIS.
  • Open space management.
  • Creation of a project secretariat.

This study focuses on the first component only. Close to the beginning of the new millennium, the BDA recognised the need to adopt alternative means for environmental improvement as an integral part of entering the new millennium. In 1998 it designed an alternative approach to developing and maintaining civic amenities through an integrated urban environment plan. The plan was based on a holistic approach, with an in-built system for coordination between various agencies, and with the local residents as the focus of activity. The adopted a 'stakeholder' approach, drawing in resources of NGOs and local residents to address specific issues in the areas, thereby creating and building community awareness of neighbourhood management.

Stakeholders/Partnerships

Primary Stakeholders: Residents of the 4 target schemes and BDA were the primary stakeholder with an overall objective of handing over the area to BMP with an existing plan in place. 

Funding Agency: NORAD (Government of Norway)

Technical Stakeholders: Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), Myrthri Sarva Seva Samiti and Technology Informatics Design Endeavour (TIDE).

Other Stakeholders: resident associations, waste scavengers, BMP, BWSSB, KPTC, Bangalore City Police, BMTC, other civic and emergency services of city.

Description of the Project

The SWM component of the IUEIP focussed on development of local level plans for segregation at source, reduction of waste at primary levels, decentralised composting and marketing of end products, recycling, and transfer of wastes to secondary collection points.

The first step included a detailed study and survey of the four schemes to generate information on quantity and quality of waste, water sources, sewerage and drainage systems, existing waste practices in waste management, and identification of suitable land for setting up of composting facilities. This information was used to develop an action plan which was discussed with the residents and approved.

Before execution of the plan, a thorough environmental education (EE) programme was undertaken and all residents, commercial users, servants, etc., were covered. Different technique of EE were used depending on socio-cultural lifestyles of target groups. Most important component of EE was need for quality segregation at source.

Simultaneously waste management committees were set up to monitor and manage the programme. Members of WMCs were trained by the technical experts. Door-to-door segregated collection was initiated in August 1998. All wastes were transferred in specially designed low-cost rickshaws. Localised compost plants were constructed and all biodegradable wastes were transferred to the compost facility. All recyclables were sold by the waste collectors (erstwhile rag pickers, scavengers, etc.) which added to their monthly remunerations. The monthly remunerations of the waste collectors was fixed. Remaining waste (low quantities of recyclables, soiled wastes, and hazardous wastes) are transferred to secondary collection points of BDA.

Compost Facilities  
 
 

Localised compost facilities were set up in the residential area. Usually an open ground or buffer area was preferred. Eight compost facilities were installed for the first two layout schemes. Although composting facilities originally used aerobic decomposition, they are now being converted to vermicomposting technology with special microbial cultures obtained from the University of Agriculture Sciences, Bangalore in a step-to-step process. This switch will take time since vermicomposting is a more expensive option and requires large capital and O&M investments. The compost pits are of the size of 9 x 4 x 3 ft and it takes an average of 60 days for a compost to be ready, which is then sieved to retrieve the finer compost, while the coarser compost is put back into the pits with fresh garbage. All compost pits are lined with bricks and waterproof material and have sheds over them to protect them from rain and sun. Mesh wires have been provided around the facility to keep away stray animals (see picture).

Financial Outlay

The IUEIP has a three-year time span for execution. The budgetary provision included Rs.363.28 lakhs with funding from NORAD accounting for Rs.290 lakhs (around 80% of the budget) and the remaining Rs.73.28 lakhs contributed from implementing agencies. The O&M costs are recovered from residents and sale of compost to residents and outsiders.

Cost Recovery

Households need to pay Rs.15 per month to the WMC which manages the bank account jointly with CEE. Composts are sold at Rs. 2/- per kg to residents and Rs. 6/- per kg to outsiders. Vermicompost, which has a large market demand, is sold at Rs.7.50/- per kg. One of the biggest purchasers of this compost has been the Horticulture Wing of BDA which uses it in its parks, medians, buffers, etc.

Management Issues

The management of the entire project lies with the WMCs with support from the local NGOs. The monthly remuneration for the workers, overhead charges, and O&M costs from running the project as well as the compost facilities are managed by the WMC from the monthly charges collected from residents and shopkeepers.

Environmental Hazards 
 
 

This is a low environmental hazard procedure. It results in waste reduction at primary level, which have a direct environmental benefit. This reduces the load on the landfills as well as reduce transportation costs and thus, environmental costs from lesser fuel usage. The negative side effects of aerobic composting (foul odour) has been done away with time and shifting in parts to vermicomposting. Use of lined pits (lined with brick and waterproof) ensures that there is no leaching, especially during rainy season. These pits have been covered to protect them from direct rain and fenced to protect them from stray animals. Over a period of time a 'green screen' consisting of trees and bushes have been created to visually cut off the compost facilities from surrounding areas (see picture).

Marketability Issues  
 
 
 

The compost produced from these facilities is of good quality; they are being used by neighbouring agriculture farmers (who use the coarse compost as it is better suited for rice produce), organic farming industry, floral industry, etc. The Horticulture Wing of BDA is another major buyer of this compost and uses it for improving greenery on medians, buffers, parks, etc. (see picture). Improved SWM in these colonies have also had an impact on cost recovery for other services, with residents more willing to pay for water supply, sewerage and drainage services. Real estate values of these areas have also gone up.

Sustainability Issues  

Operating Parametres of the Composting Plant of m/s Excel Industries, Mumbai

Volume of Garbage: 450 m3/day Weight of Garbage: 300 TPD
Quality of Garbage: Unsegregated Total Land Requirement: 6 Ha.
Capital Investment (excluding land cost: Rs. 2.5 crore  
Value of Product: Rs.1300/ton Net Return per ton of Garbage Processed: Rs.100-120

Source: FEC & Delphi, 1997

Although the IUEIP is over, SWM in the target areas is still ongoing managed by WMCs. In fact, WMCs have been able to recover enough money from residents and sale of compost not only for sustainable management, but also for shifting from aerobic form of composting to vermicomposting, which is a more costly, though environment-friendly, option. Following the demonstration of success of this initiative, many other colonies/schemes in Bangalore have taken up similar initiatives on their own. Therefore, at a decentralised level, this is a sustainable project and this technology/process can be easily transferred to other cities in

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

Sunday, July 20, 2008

saleem india blog ranked by google at a moderate 4

WEB SITE                  GOOGLE RANK
saleemindia.blogspot.com 4 

HOW TO MAKE YOUR BLOG POPULAR SOME TIPS & TRICKS

1. Download goodkeywords to find keywords that are relevant to the products you are selling, nearly every man and his dog uses goodkeywords, its free, once downloaded just select the keyword suggestion tool and type in a word, it will tell you what keywords and search terms people are searching for. First, think about the theme of the site and write down the most popular words that come to mind. Ensure they are words that are likely to be used in finding the site's content

 

 

2. Go to Blogger, create a new blog, its free, use relevant keywords for the name of your blog - ie: workfromhomeblogspot etc.., create up to 5 blogs, link 4 blogs to your main blog just by placing the URL for your main blog onto the other 4 blogs, you can create as many blogs as you like with links all pointing to your main blog, each blog should have the same affiliate product but using slighlty different keywords on each blog title and URL. Submit your blogs to the 3 main search engines Google, Yahoo and MSN, go to pingomatic.com and ping your blogs.

 

3. CONTENT IS ALWAYS KING. Post good articles. Www.seochat.com, goarticles and EzineArticles (also free) - there are many more resourceful web site that helped me a lot.

4. use http://pingomatic.com/ to ping your blog after each new posting. This will bring the search engine spiders to your blog.

 

 

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

List of architects in delhi with email addresses

List of Architects in Delhi

Saturday, July 19, 2008

UPGRADATION OF THE EXISTING SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (STP)


UPGRADATION OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
:
POINT ONE
: FMR technology in place of existing conventional Activated Sludge System
Utilizing FMR technology can dramatically increase the efficiency of the Aeration system. Compared to conventional technologies the FMR is compact, energy efficient and user friendly. It also allows flexibility in design of the reactor tank.
The FMR is better than SAFF technology and works on the same principle as the submerged fixed film process (SAFF) with only one exception - the media is not fixed and floats around in the aeration tank. The main advantage of this system over the submerged fixed film process is that it prevents choking of the media.

FMR is an advanced version of the SAFF, which uses a floating media to avoid the practical choking problem of media in SAFF.

POINT TWO
:
The existing Sludge drying beds can be replaced with sludge thickener and centrifuge which is faster and efficient for disposal of sludge. It is also hygienic in view of five star hotel.

Sludge Thickening
:
Gravity thickening is accomplished in circular sedimentation basins similar to those used for primary and secondary clarification of liquid wastes
The sludge thickener shall be used to store and gravity thickens sludges from the waste treatment processes. Settled sludges are discharged on an as needed via sludge pumps. Water content in sludge can be reduced by mechanically compressing sludge in filter press, belt press etc. this can also be achieved by centrifuge mechanism and also by other mechanical devices. Excess supernatant wills gravity flow from the tank with provisions for manual decanting of waters via valves located on the side of the tank.
The Area Requirement of Sludge Thickener and Centrifuge:
Both the above items can be installed in the area presently occupied by sludge drying beds. No extra area is required.


POINT THREE
: The media in ACF and PSF are to be changed as they have losed filtration capacity. They have not been changed for a long time. POINT FOUR : The treated water after ACF can be passed through a Softener so that this water can be used in Cooling tower therby reducing consumption of ground water.
Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

Monday, July 14, 2008

kitchen waste to energy 0.5 Ton capacity plant

Introduction: kitchen waste to energy

Add kitchen bio degradable Solid waste to a 5 HP mixer to process the waste before putting it into predigestor tank. The waste is converted in slurry by mixing with water (1:1) in this mixture.

Use of thermophilic microbes for faster degradation of the waste. The growth of thermophiles in the predigestor tank is assured by mixing the waste with hot water and maintaining the temperature in the range of 55-60oC. The hot water supply is from a solar heater. Even one-hour sunlight is sufficient per day to meet the needs of hot water.

After the predigestor tank the slurry enters the main tank where it undergoes mainly anaerobic degra-dation by a consortium of archae-bacteria belonging to Methanococcus group. These bacteria are naturally present in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals (cattle). They produce mainly methane from the cellulosic materials in the slurry.

The undigested lignocellulosic and hemicellulosic materials then are passed on in the settling tank. After about a month high quality manure can be dug out from the settling tanks. There is no odour to the manure at all. The organic contents are high and this can improve the quality of humus in soil, which in turn is responsible for the fertility.

As the gas is generated in the main tank, the dome is slowly lifted up. It reaches a maximum height of 8 feet . This gas is a mixture of methane (70-75%), carbondioxide (10-15%) and water vapours (5-10%). It is taken through GI pipeline to the lamp posts. Drains for condensed water vapour are provided on line. This gas burns with a blue flame and can be used for cooking as well.

The gas generated in this plant is used for gas lights fitted around the plant. The potential use of this gas would be for a canteen. The manure generated is high quality and can be used in fields.

Success of this biogas plant depends a great deal on proper segregation of the kitchen waste. The materials that can pose problems to the efficient running of plant are coconut shells and coir, egg shells, onion peels, bones and plastic pieces. Steel utensils like dishes, spoons etc. are likely to appear in the waste bags from canteens. While bones, shells and utensils can spoil the mixer physically, onion peels, coir and plastic can have detrimental effects on microbial consortium in the predigester and main digestion tanks which could be disastrous for the plant.

 

THE PROPOSAL:

 

Breakup of the 0.5 T Biogas Project Cost

Civil Construction of Biogas Plant

  1. Mixer with stirrer to mix hot water (1:1) to form a slurry,
  2. Aerobic Digester,
  3. Anaerobic digeter

Mechanical Items :

Gas Holding MS Steel Dome

Steel Fabricated Covers on Manure Pits,

Mixer Stirrer ,3 HP, 1 no

Air Compressor

Solar Water Heater

Water Pump and Slurry Pump

Water and Gas Pipelines on Plant area

Electric Fittings & Miscellaneous


Total Project cost Rs.5,50,000/-

Technology and Consultancy Rs. 1,00,000/-


Grand Total Cost of Project Rs.6,50,000/-

 

 

POWER GENERATION:

Bio Gas production = 100 cu mtr /day for 0.5 ton of waste

Methane content (65.75%) = 65.75 cu mtr

Calorific value =28.9 MJ/N.cu mtr

Energy content 65.75x28.9x273/(273+30)=1712 MJ/Day

Generator efficiency--- 30%

Electricity generated =0.3x1712x1000000/3600x1000

= 142.66

Electric power generated = 142.66x0.04167=5.944 kw say 6 kw

= 1.25x 6= 7.5 kva.

We can go for a gas engine of capacity 5 KW . If any gas is left , it will be flared or supplied to staff quarters

Cost details, saving and payback period from a biogas plant:

The cost details and the savings envisaged from the plant are given in the following table. The life of the plant could be 20-30 years and payback period is 4-5 years.

Capacity (Tons / Day)

Installation Cost (Rs In Lacks)

Monthly Operation and Maintenance Charges (Rs)

Methane Generation M3

Manure production (tons /day)

Area Required M2

Power

Manpower

Fresh Water (KL /day)

Hot water (Ltr / day of 50-60 C0)

Cooking Fuel (Equivalent to LPG Cyl / day)

1

8-10

8,000/-

100-120

0.1

300

5hp(2hr)

2

2

200

2-3

2

10-12

12,000/-

200-240

0.2

500

5hp(3hr)

3

3

400

4-5

4

20-22

22,000/-

400-480

0.3

700

5hp(3hr)

4

5

400

8-10

5

28-30

30,000/-

500-600

0.5

800

10hp (4hr)

5

7

600

12-14 (25Kw)

10

65-70

50,000/-

1000-1200

2.5

1200

15hp (4hr)

10

15

1000

22-25 (50Kw)

* This is an approximate cost for biogas generation plant and may increase by 10%–20%, depending on location, site-specific parameters, cost of materials, labour cost, etc., in different states/cities. Cost of additional infrastructure like office space, toilets, security, Godown, Shades and power generation will be extra, if required.

Rs – rupees; m3 – cubic meters; m2 – square meters; h – hour; kL – kilolitre; LPG – liquefied petroleum gas; kW – kilowatt; cyl – cylinder

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com

Bio Gas from Kitchen Waste

CASE STUDY---COMPOST PLANT FOR BIO DEGRADABLE SOLID WASTE AT SAW PIPE, Mundra

Source : Kitchen waste from the residential area of the factory

Quantity = 500 kg per day

System Installed : Aerobic followed by anaerobic bio reactor.

THE PROPOSAL:

Breakup of the 0.5 T Biogas Project Cost

Civil Construction of Biogas Plant

Gas Holding MS Steel Dome

Steel Fabricated Covers on Manure Pits,

Mixer Tank

Air Compressor

Solar Water Heater

Water Pump and Slurry Pump

Water and Gas Pipelines on Plant area

Electric Fittings & Miscellaneous

Stirrer for mixer



Total Project cost Rs.5,50,000/-

Technology and Consultancy Rs. 1,00,000/-



Grand Total Cost of Project Rs.6,50,000/-

OUR RECENT PROJECT ON BIO GAS GENERATION AND UTILIZATION FROM LIQUIDE WASTE :

BHOLABA DAIRY LIMITED. ALIGARH, U.P.

Bio Gas Generation from Dairy waste :

Ms Bhole Baba Milk food Industries Ltd. is coming up with a new plant at khair road, Aligarh

The Dairy will handle about 10-lac litre of milk every day. Depending on the season, major differences occur in the quantities of milk received from cooperative milk federation and in the use of butter, butter oil and milk powder. The value added products manufactured will be Casein,Milk Protien Concentrate,Lactose-Both Food &Pherma,Demineralised Whey Protien,Whole Milk Powder,Skimmed Milk Powder, & White Butter In Bricks Form, with future planning to produce processed Cheese/Mozerella.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERATING EFFLUENT WATER:

The values of incoming wastewater at ETP is as under:

S.No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

pH

6.0 – 10.5

Total Suspended Solids

Mg/l

1500.0 – 2000.0

B.O.D.

Mg/l

1500.0 – 1800.0

C.O.D.

Mg/l

2500.0 – 3500.0

Oil & Grease

Mg/l

150.0 – 250.0

Rated capacity of ETP

KL/Day

1,000.0

  1. Bio-gas collection & utilization or Flaring: The gas produced in the UASB reactors is led to the gas holder through a moisture trap and gas flow meter.The outlet of the gas holder is to be branched off in two directions, one going to the generator room for supply to the engines and the other to the gas flaring equipments. The primary purpose of a gas holder is to adjust the difference in the rate of gas production and consumption.The gas engines demand a constant supply of bio gas at a constant pressure. The bio gas holder is designed for a storage of 4 hours of bio gas production normally at a pressure of 40m bar. As bio gas enters or leaves, the holder rises or falls with the help of guide rails. Valves in the gas lines will be operated manually to maintain the gas dome at 90%(Gas flaring level), 80%(Engine level) and 20% (Low levels, where engine as well as flaring will be stopped and the dome will be allowed to rise.).

GAS PRODUCTION & POWER GENERATION:

The gas flowing upward with the liquid will be prevented from escaping with the treated flow by GLSS and beam deflector, which will divert it to the gas collector domes. The gas produced shall be passed through 100 mm dia FRP pipe for individual domes and collected at a common point for each reactor by a common header of 200 mm dia pipe from where it will conveyed to the gas holder for constant flow to the gasomete generator or flaring in open atmosphere at about 6 meter above ground level.

.

Capacity of gas holder:

The primary purpose of a gas holder is to adjust the difference in the rate of gas production and consumption. As bio gas enters or leaves, the holder rises or falls by guide rails.

Provide a gas holder of 300 cu mtr capacity.

POWER GENERATION:

The bio gas produced in UASB process should be utilized for production of electric power. The amount of electric power generated shall be as under:

We can go for a gas engine of capacity 10 KW . If any gas is left , it will be flared or supplied to staff quarters.

NOTE FOR COMPARISION : A 56 mld UASB plant having Inlet COD =400 ppm can safely run a 45 KW gas engine.

Literature Study :

The Principle:

Biomass in any form is ideal for the Biomethanation concept, which is the central idea of the Biogas plants. Based on thermophilic microorganisms and microbial processes develop the design of the biogas plant. The plant is completely gravity based.

Brief process description:

The segregated wet garbage (food waste) is brought to the plant site in bins and containers. It is loaded on a sorting platform and residual plastic, metal; glass and other non-biodegradable items are further segregated. The waste is loaded into a Waste Crusher along with water, which is mounted on the platform. The food waste slurry mixed with hot water is directly charged into the Primary digester.

This digester serves mainly as hydrolysis cum acidification tank for the treatment of suspended solids. For breaking slag compressed air is used for agitation of slurry. Compressed air will also help in increasing aeration since bacteria involved in this tank are aerobic in nature. The tank is designed in such a way that after the system reaches equilibrium in initial 4-5 days, the fresh slurry entering the tank will displace equal amount of digested matter from top into the main digester tank.

Main digester tank serves as a methane fermentation tank and BOD reduction takes place here. The treated overflow from this digester is connected to the manure pits. This manure can be supplied to farmers at the rate of 4-5 Rs. per Kg. Alternatively municipal gardens and local gardens can be assured of regular manure from this biogas plant.

The biogas is collected in a dome (Gas holder) is a drum like structure, fabricated either of mild steel sheets or fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP). It fits like a cap on the mouth of digester where it is submerged in the water and rests in the ledge, constructed inside the digester for this purpose. The drum collects gas, which is produced from the slurry inside the digester as it gets decomposed and rises upward, being lighter than air. 1" GI piping will be provided up to a distance of 50 m from the Biogas plant. Biogas burners will be provided. The biogas can be used for cooking, heating and power generation purpose.

Cost details, saving and payback period from a biogas plant:

The cost details and the savings envisaged from the plant are given in the following table. The life of the plant could be 20-30 years and payback period is 4-5 years.

Capacity (Tons / Day)

Installation Cost (Rs In Lacks)

Monthly Operation and Maintenance Charges (Rs)

Methane Generation M3

Manure production (tons /day)

Area Required M2

Power

Manpower

Fresh Water (KL /day)

Hot water (Ltr / day of 50-60 C0)

Cooking Fuel (Equivalent to LPG Cyl / day)

1

8-10

8,000/-

100-120

0.1

300

5hp(2hr)

2

2

200

2-3

2

10-12

12,000/-

200-240

0.2

500

5hp(3hr)

3

3

400

4-5

4

20-22

22,000/-

400-480

0.3

700

5hp(3hr)

4

5

400

8-10

5

28-30

30,000/-

500-600

0.5

800

10hp (4hr)

5

7

600

12-14 (25Kw)

10

65-70

50,000/-

1000-1200

2.5

1200

15hp (4hr)

10

15

1000

22-25 (50Kw)

* This is an approximate cost for biogas generation plant and may increase by 10%–20%, depending on location, site-specific parameters, cost of materials, labour cost, etc., in different states/cities. Cost of additional infrastructure like office space, toilets, security, Godown, Shades and power generation will be extra, if required.

Rs – rupees; m3 – cubic meters; m2 – square meters; h – hour; kL – kilolitre; LPG – liquefied petroleum gas; kW – kilowatt; cyl – cylinder

Suitable locations for installation of plant

Hotel premises, army/big establishment canteens (private/ government), residential schools/colleges, housing colonies, religious places / temple trusts, hospitals, hotels, sewage treatment plants, villages, etc.


Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
Mobiles : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025
email: saleemasraf@gmail.com
web: http://saleemindia.blogspot.com/

Bio Gas from Kitchen waste



Literature Study : Bio Gas from Kitchen waste
The Principle: Biomass in any form is ideal for the Biomethanation concept, which is the central idea of the Biogas plants. Based on thermophilic microorganisms and microbial processes develop the design of the biogas plant. The plant is completely gravity based.
Brief process description: The segregated wet garbage (food waste) is brought to the plant site in bins and containers. It is loaded on a sorting platform and residual plastic, metal; glass and other non-biodegradable items are further segregated. The waste is loaded into a Waste Crusher along with water, which is mounted on the platform. The food waste slurry mixed with hot water is directly charged into the Primary digester.
This digester serves mainly as hydrolysis cum acidification tank for the treatment of suspended solids. For breaking slag compressed air is used for agitation of slurry. Compressed air will also help in increasing aeration since bacteria involved in this tank are aerobic in nature. The tank is designed in such a way that after the system reaches equilibrium in initial 4-5 days, the fresh slurry entering the tank will displace equal amount of digested matter from top into the main digester tank.
Main digester tank serves as a methane fermentation tank and BOD reduction takes place here. The treated overflow from this digester is connected to the manure pits. This manure can be supplied to farmers at the rate of 4-5 Rs. per Kg. Alternatively municipal gardens and local gardens can be assured of regular manure from this biogas plant.
The biogas is collected in a dome (Gas holder) is a drum like structure, fabricated either of mild steel sheets or fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP). It fits like a cap on the mouth of digester where it is submerged in the water and rests in the ledge, constructed inside the digester for this purpose. The drum collects gas, which is produced from the slurry inside the digester as it gets decomposed and rises upward, being lighter than air. 1" GI piping will be provided up to a distance of 50 m from the Biogas plant. Biogas burners will be provided. The biogas can be used for cooking, heating and power generation purpose.
Cost details, saving and payback period from a biogas plant: The cost details and the savings envisaged from the plant are given in the following table. The life of the plant could be 20-30 years and payback period is 4-5 years.

Capacity (Tons / Day)


Installation Cost (Rs In Lacks)


Monthly Operation and Maintenance Charges (Rs)


Methane Generation M3


Manure production (tons /day)


Area Required M2


Power


Manpower


Fresh Water (KL /day)


Hot water (Ltr / day of 50-60 C0)


Cooking Fuel (Equivalent to LPG Cyl / day)


1


8-10


8,000/-


100-120


0.1


300


5hp(2hr)


2


2


200


2-3


2


10-12


12,000/-


200-240


0.2


500


5hp(3hr)


3


3


400


4-5


4


20-22


22,000/-


400-480


0.3


700


5hp(3hr)


4


5


400


8-10


5


28-30


30,000/-


500-600


0.5


800


10hp (4hr)


5


7


600


12-14 (25Kw)


10


65-70


50,000/-


1000-1200


2.5


1200


15hp (4hr)


10


15


1000


22-25 (50Kw)

* This is an approximate cost for biogas generation plant and may increase by 10%–20%, depending on location, site-specific parameters, cost of materials, labour cost, etc., in different states/cities. Cost of additional infrastructure like office space, toilets, security, Godown, Shades and power generation will be extra, if required.
Rs – rupees; m3 – cubic meters; m2 – square meters; h – hour; kL – kilolitre; LPG – liquefied petroleum gas; kW – kilowatt; cyl – cylinder
Suitable locations for installation of plant Hotel premises, army/big establishment canteens (private/ government), residential schools/colleges, housing colonies, religious places / temple trusts, hospitals, hotels, sewage treatment plants, villages, etc.



OUR RECENT PROJECT ON BIO GAS GENERATION AND UTILIZATION:
BHOLABA DAIRY LIMITED. ALIGARH, U.P.

Bio Gas Generation from Dairy waste :
Ms Bhole Baba Milk food Industries Ltd. is coming up with a new plant at khair road, Aligarh
The Dairy will handle about 10-lac litre of milk every day. Depending on the season, major differences occur in the quantities of milk received from cooperative milk federation and in the use of butter, butter oil and milk powder. The value added products manufactured will be Casein,Milk Protien Concentrate,Lactose-Both Food &Pherma,Demineralised Whey Protien,Whole Milk Powder,Skimmed Milk Powder, & White Butter In Bricks Form, with future planning to produce processed Cheese/Mozerella.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERATING EFFLUENT WATER:

The values of incoming wastewater at ETP is as under:



S.No.


Parameter


Unit


Value



pH



6.0 – 10.5



Total Suspended Solids


Mg/l


1500.0 – 2000.0



B.O.D.


Mg/l


1500.0 – 1800.0



C.O.D.


Mg/l


2500.0 – 3500.0



Oil & Grease


Mg/l


150.0 – 250.0



Rated capacity of ETP


KL/Day


1,000.0

Feeding of Effluent to USAB Reactor: Anaerobic digestion takes place here. Methane gas is generated because of anaerobic degradation. The top supernatant from the USAB reactor flows by gravity to the aeration tanks inlet. Three reactors are planned. When one reactor is out of operation, calamity flow is the designed flow. One distribution box will distribute the flow into the three reactors.
  1. Bio-gas collection & utilization or Flaring: The gas produced in the UASB reactors is led to the gas holder through a moisture trap and gas flow meter.The outlet of the gas holder is to be branched off in two directions, one going to the generator room for supply to the engines and the other to the gas flaring equipments. The primary purpose of a gas holder is to adjust the difference in the rate of gas production and consumption.The gas engines demand a constant supply of bio gas at a constant pressure. The bio gas holder is designed for a storage of 4 hours of bio gas production normally at a pressure of 40m bar. As bio gas enters or leaves, the holder rises or falls with the help of guide rails. Valves in the gas lines will be operated manually to maintain the gas dome at 90%(Gas flaring level), 80%(Engine level) and 20% (Low levels, where engine as well as flaring will be stopped and the dome will be allowed to rise.).
GAS PRODUCTION & POWER GENERATION:
The gas flowing upward with the liquid will be prevented from escaping with the treated flow by GLSS and beam deflector, which will divert it to the gas collector domes. The gas produced shall be passed through 100 mm dia FRP pipe for individual domes and collected at a common point for each reactor by a common header of 200 mm dia pipe from where it will conveyed to the gas holder for constant flow to the gasomete generator or flaring in open atmosphere at about 6 meter above ground level.

Quantity of Gas Production:

PARAMETER


INLET OF UASB


OUTLET OF UASB


REMOVAL IN UASB


BOD


1700 ppm


340 ppm


80%


COD


3300 ppm


1320 ppm


60%


TSS


1800 ppm


450 ppm


75%


FLOW IN UASB = 1500 KLD (Taking full future capacity into account)
Influent COD@ 3300 ppm = 4950 Kg
Effluent COD = 1980 Kg
COD removed in a day = 2970 kg
Bio gas produced @ 0.1 cu mtr per kg of COD removed = 297 cu mtr per day.
Capacity of gas holder: The primary purpose of a gas holder is to adjust the difference in the rate of gas production and consumption. As bio gas enters or leaves, the holder rises or falls by guide rails.
Provide a gas holder of 300 cu mtr capacity.
POWER GENERATION:

The bio gas produced in UASB process should be utilized for production of electric power. The amount of electric power generated shall be as under:
Bio Gas production = 297 cu mtr /day
Methane content (65.75%) = 195.28 cu mtr
Calorific value =28.9 MJ/N.cu mtr
Energy content 195.28x28.9x273/(273+30)=5048 MJ/Day
Generator efficiency--- 30%
Electricity generated =0.3x5048x1000000/3600x1000
= 420.66
Electric power generated = 420.66x0.04167=17.5289 kw say17 kw
= 1.25x 17= 21.25 kva.
We can go for a gas engine of capacity 10 KW . If any gas is left , it will be flared or supplied to staff quarters.


NOTE FOR COMPARISION : A 56 mld UASB plant having Inlet COD =400 ppm can safely run a 45 KW gas engine.


LITERATURE STUDY::

http://www.builditsolar.com/Projects/BioFuel/VITABIOGAS3M.HTM

http://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80362e/80362E0j.htm

Biogas Plant Design Downloadshttp://www.build-a-biogas-plant.com/biogas-plant-design/

design concept of  bio gas plant http://www.sswm.info/content/anaerobic-digestion-organic-waste

Tuesday, July 01, 2008

IT grad, now you can get industry-ready online

Suresh Elangovan, CEO and managing director, Mindlogicx, who is also a board member at Anna University in Tamil Nadu, said finishing schools have become essential especially in the IT sector. "Since most of the finishing schools are based in the cities and are too expensive, I thought the best way is to go online. This is the only way to reach people across the country, especially in the rural sector. A student in the rural sector cannot come to the city and attend a finishing school."

He says this idea was floated keeping in mind the vision of former President Dr APJ Abdul Kalam [Images] who had said that it was essential to create a knowledge bank.

How it works
Those interested in joining the course would have to pick up a pre-paid scratch card known as Edu Card. Suresh says they have tied up with Reliance [Get Quote] who will be selling the cards. For the IT finishing course, there are two options available -- re-skilling and up-skilling.

Re-skilling involves enhancement of built up skill. It basically finetunes the skill of a candidate. This card is available at Rs 1,500. Up-skilling would involve the teaching of new skills. Suresh says there are various cards available for this course and the pricing is between Rs 499 and Rs 5,000. 

Suresh says for students who are confused as to what they ought to be learning, they could pick up a card for Rs 499 where details of the various course will be available. The student could take a mock test and the results will be available online. Based on his/her performance s/he would decide on what course s/he wants to do.

The scratch card provides a 16-digit number which a candidate needs to use to log in and create an account. Once a candidate logs in, s/he will get the study material online. Suresh says care has been taken to give a classroom feel to the course. Guest lectures will be available online and students could also participate in group discussions sitting at home, he adds.

Considering the fact that internet speeds are not great in rural India, Suresh says the delivery of the package is available at a mere 40 kpbs speed through a dial-up connection also. He says slow connectivity will not be an issue for students taking up this course.

The examinations too will be online, Suresh adds. Prior to taking up the examination, a student gets a chance to test his skills through a meter to help assess one's performance. If a student thinks s/he is ready, then s/he could take the examination.

The number of attempts a student can make would depend on the denomination of the card. A student who has picked up a card for Rs 499 could make up to 50 attempts and this card would be valid for a year. A Rs 1,500 card would enable a student to have 100 attempts while the Rs 5,000 card would give a student 250 attempts.

A student who uses up all the attempts would have to purchase another card, Suresh says. However, it would be better to get through in the minimum number of attempts as it would read well on the bio-data, he adds.

For those students who complete the up-skilling course they would be certified by T�V Rheinland. Suresh says this certificate will enable students get global validity. The certificate will have a seal of authentication by way of a Global Access Code and the same will be made available in the global database of T�V Rheinland. 

The students can connect to the prospective employers by using this unique GAC that vouches for the authenticity of their knowledge base. Suresh says a certificate for those students taking up the re-skilling course will also be provided. However, the certification would be done by Mindlogicx.
 
The commercial launch of the online finishing school is scheduled for the second week of August 2008. Queries are already flowing in and the responses have been best from Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, informs Suresh. However, he adds that the response has been better from students in the city when compared to the rural areas. "Over the months we will spread awareness regarding this course in the rural areas."