Monday, March 31, 2008


Some useful tips to success given below. Donot try, Follow them


1. Develop faith and belief in the Business Concept.

2. Have faith and belief in the Corporation; faith in totality i.e. in its Products, its Management, its commitment, everything.

3. Have unconditional faith and belief in your Up-line, i.e. your Line of Sponsorship (LOS), who are interested only in your success. Keep regular contact with your up-line and get all questions and problems clarified and solved at the quickest possible time to improve your credibility to your down-line.

4. Have faith in yourself and in your spouse. Develop your self image, develop your level of conviction, build your commitment, and give this business of MLM, the priority. This will change your life and that of your down-lines also.

5. Remember that you are helping people by unfolding a unique business opportunity to them. A little bit of an INDIFFERENT ATTITUDE will work best for you in this matter. Your attitude should be like- "If you accept this opportunity, good for you; if you don't, not bad for me; rather, you are losing an opportunity that doesn't come your way too often". Never be persuasive or nagging type. Behave in a friendly, debonair manner, and of course, uphold your own image and those of your up-lines, as well. Understand and remember that your ROLE is of a GIVER and not that of a TAKER. For these developments to take place, follow the system of success in MLM consistently and persistently. FIGURE OUT YOUR OWN DREAM AND WRITE IT DOWN and

a. Attach a date to it, fix it in such places where your eyes will frequently fall upon (on refrigerator, tops, mirrors etc, and don't feel ashamed to do it. [VISUALISE]

b. Speak about your dreams (which are, now, your GOALS as you have already attached a date to them) with your spouse and children and also with your LOS (Line of Sponsorship). [VERBALISE]

c. And program yourself, accordingly, to reach those Goals. [VITALISE]

6. Read recommended books and listen to recommended tapes to educate yourself about human psychology, how to influence people and convince them and to improve your POSITIVE MENTAL ATTITUDE (PMA). Attend seminars and other functions to associate yourself with the people who are already successful in this business and whom you would like to follow.

7. Be Teachable- Accountable- both to others and to yourself.

8. Develop a habit of reading recommended books for 30 minutes/day and listening to recommended tapes for 15 minutes, everyday before going to bed- no matter how tired you are. That proves your accountability to yourself.

9. All these, will raise your level of conviction which will, ultimately, help you in your success in this business of MLM. Until and unless you can improve your level of conviction, you can't be successful. While, you are Showing the Plan (STP), the people who are watching you are constantly judging you. So, it doesn't matter what you say, but does matter how you say. They are interested in seeing how much of conviction, you have in this business concept, how excited you are about this business, how committed you are towards this business. Hence, remember, they are always judging you.


This gorgeous business of MLM is a trade, which is very closely related to your life, in general. Learning and teaching is a continuous and consistent process that has to be followed to the T. In this business, you ought to learn from your seniors i.e. the already successful people, who know how the game is played and what the ins and outs of the trade are; and to teach your down-lines the very same in an officious and selfless manner. Remember your down-lines' success is your success. So, give your optimum to their cause in order to get the same back from them for your sake.


You have to do it just the way you take care of your kids. They are your biggest assets in the business. Convince them, nurture them, motivate them, and build healthy long term professional relationship with them. Do whatever it takes to help them identify, strive for and achieve their goals, because doing that will ensure your goals being materialized in the process. This is the beauty of this business. Sponsoring 15-20 direct down-lines/distributors and helping them in the manner described above would ensure, at least, 4-5 of them becoming the stalwarts of your organization. And once, a strong foundation of your organization is prepared, you can build an empire of successful MLM Leaders leading and managing their own healthy and rapidly advancing organizations under your able, efficient and inspiring guidance and leadership.


Inculcating sound business habits and ethics within yourself and your organization and building a very high standard/level of confidence based on the knowledge and skills of the system of the business, always results in enabling you to be fully equipped and prepared and TOUGH so that you and your organization are able to overcome any form or dimension of TOUGH TIMES or obstacles/hindrances that may come your way in the process of expanding or executing your business. Hence, always make sure you and your organization are tough (well equipped and capable) in the trade and also see to it that the same trend or ethics is being duplicated down the line in your entire organization's generations because POWER BREEDS POWER.


1. "How to win friends and influence people"- Dale Carnegie

2. "Magic of thinking Big"- David Schwartz

3. "Think and grow rich"- Nepolean Hill

4. Master key to riches"- Nepolean Hill

5. "7 habits of highly effective people"- Steven Covey


Quick adaptability and quick responsiveness

Its all about Quick adaptability and quick responsiveness

The meaning of the phrase "talent management" is anticipating human capital needs and setting about meeting them. "Getting the right people with the right skills into the right jobs at the right time" is a common description of the end result of a good talent management outcome. To that outcome, one needs to anticipate needs and have a plan to meet them. That's the process of talent management. The problem we are hoping to avoid with good talent management is to avoid talent crunches, where business growth suffers because we can't find employees with the right competencies to get the work done, and talent surpluses, where we have to layoff and restructure.

At the moment, talent management practices, especially in the US, the most common is to do nothing, no anticipation of needs, no plans for addressing them. A recent survey reported that roughly two-thirds of US employers do no planning of any kind for their talent needs.

Long-term planning in business is so inaccurate that relying on it is a mistake. The reason is that product markets are no longer predictable. The idea that a company could predict accurately what it would be doing 10 years out or more has largely disappeared. When business forecasts and plans shrunk from 10 years to five years to, in most cases now one year, the ability to predict the demand for talent has to be scaled back as well. Programmes for developing talent that go out many years create a false sense of accuracy and no longer make sense.

Another problem with this approach is that the supply of internal talent is equally uncertain because of retention problems. Simply predicting what percentage of candidates who begin a development programme will remain when it ends is now difficult. A company that has a modest 10% turnover rate among its managerial ranks will lose half of its managers in five years: Does it still make sense to call that arrangement a "pipeline", or is it better thought of as a sieve?

The big challenge for talent management stems from the main challenge facing contemporary business, and that is to manage uncertainty. The demand for talent is uncertain. As we've already seen in the field of business strategy,
the answer is going to point us away from planning and toward adaptability and responsiveness as a means for addressing uncertainty on both the supply and demand sides of the talent management equation.


Handling difficult people

Handling difficult people
30 Mar 2008, 0045 hrs IST,Saleem Rana
They are out there. They may either be your boss, college professor, business partner, landlord, or even your own spouse, children, siblings or parents. Anyone can be a difficult person to someone else. You may not admit it, but at one time or another all of us have been difficult people to other people.

It is vital to see if you are in a situation with a difficult person or if you yourself are beginning to be one. The first solution to any problem is recognising the problem. Most times, difficult people do not realise they are difficult. They do not see that they are demanding too much from other people. They think their attitude is just normal. Likewise, some of their victims may not see that they are dealing with difficult people.

It is vital that at this early point, we grasp the fact that avoiding difficult people does not solve the problem in question. As earlier mentioned, these people are everywhere. There is no privacy they cannot invade. Ironically, the more successful you get the more difficult people you have to meet and cope with. Coping with difficult people might even be considered an essential skill to getting and staying successful in your life. If you enjoy sailing in the sea you have to get used to its moods.

The key is not to stay out of it but to learn to sail smoothly through thick and thin. Likewise, it is learning how to deal with a difficult person that gives you smooth sailing amid a storm. Once you master this, difficult people will start liking you. So what makes a difficult person difficult?

Everyone out there is fighting a life battle of some kind. The battles may be fierce or mild. Different people have different stress tolerance. When people reach a state of high confusion and are overwhelmed, they become difficult. They then, unconsciously project their frustration on you. As a psychologist, my business is actually in dealing with difficult people, trying to make them less difficult. Once people become aware of their own inner pain, they begin to see how they bludgeon others with it, often unconsciously. Their lives are falling apart because they are critical, judgmental, and hostile to themselves and other people. Everything i do in a session is designed for only one purpose: to make them self-aware.

Given this opportunity to see other people more deeply, I have found the best way to stay objective enough to help them is to follow the advice of Don Miguel Ruiz, a brilliant Toltec philosopher. He said that everyone is living in their own dream, their own version of reality. You have to understand that everything they are saying about you is only a projection from that state of unawareness. In fact, they do not see you at all, only their interpretation of what someone like you means to them. Thus, he advised, do not take things personally. If you base your values and your meanings on someone else's point of view, you have merely traded in your own uniqueness and become imprisoned in their dream. You are letting them define you. No one can truly understand you for they do not know you well enough to do it.

Once you really get this perspective, you can allow yourself the freedom to see them as upset about something that has nothing to do with you but over something that is bothering them. They are experiencing something about you that does not even exist in your reality.

Often, too, they do not even use the same words in the same way you do. Let me give you a simple example of the often invisible linguistic barrier that arises between people. I was recently having a discussion with someone about the subject of consciousness. She argued that it had no value for her. This was puzzling to me because what i was witnessing was a being that was animated because of consciousness. After some investigation, i finally understood that she had narrowed the word down to mean figuring things out. Thus, while i was defining the word as sentence, life-force, and awareness, she was defining it as limited, circuitous thinking.

Thus, even when two people are discussing what appears to be the same topic, they are actually talking about two completely different things. The best way to cope with difficult people is to not take what they have to say personally. If this does not make sense to you, consider the following. Difficult people are difficult because: They project their inner pain on you; and you just happen to be at the wrong place at the wrong time. Thus, it is not wise to take things personally. Once you remain free of getting stuck in their view of you, then you can intuitively understand how to cope with the situation.

Friday, March 28, 2008

professional translation services - Directory

 professional translation services by freelance language translators & translation agencies.

Mathematical economics

Mathematical economics

Mathematical economics refers to the application of mathematical methods to represent economic theory or analyze problems posed in economics. Expositors maintain that it allows formulation and derivation of key relationships in the theory with clarity, generality, rigor, and simplicity.

Much of modern economics can be presented in geometric terms or elementary mathematical notation. Mathematical economics, however, conventionally refers to use of such methods as calculus and matrix algebra in economic analysis.

Mathematical economics applications

The scope of Mathematical Economics includes:

    • Economics theories in various fields based on rigorous mathematical reasoning.
    • Mathematical methods (e.g., analysis, algebra, geometry, and probability) motivated by economic theories.
    • Mathematical results of potential relevance to economic theory.

Historical study of mathematical economics.

Criticism of mathematical economics

The methods of mathematical economics are widely, though far from exclusively used, in professional publications, but there are opponents, notably the Austrian School. Within it, the use of formal techniques has been criticized as projecting scientific exactness that, by nature of the eccentricities of its human subject matter, is infeasible, even in principle.

Proponents argue that the validity of the mathematical method derives from the distinctive modeling of economic decision-making and economic systems. These parallel mathematical concepts, such as optimization, to describe (i) rational, self-interested agents interacting in economic systems. From such assumptions and concepts, behavior of an agent or an economic system may in principle be compared against properties of the model using formal analytical techniques.

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
311/22,Zakir Nagar,
New Delhi-110025 ,India
Web Site :

Look-East Policy

Look-East Policy


With the participation of India in the East Asian Summit and from the level of interaction in the 4th India-ASEAN Summit, both held at Kuala Lumpur from 12-14 December 2005, it was seen that the Look-East policy is being pursued aggressively and has started yielding results on the economic and political fields. This policy which was primarily directed towards improving relations with ASEAN will now be enlarged to cover other nations of the region such as China, Japan and Korea to facilitate more political and economic integration.

Look-East Policy

Look-east policy was launched in 1992 just after the end of the cold war, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. After the start of liberalization, it was a very strategic policy decision taken by the government in the foreign policy. To quote Prime Minister Manmohan Singh "it was also a strategic shift in India's vision of the world and India's place in the evolving global economy".

The policy was given an initial thrust with the then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao visiting China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and Singapore and India becoming a important dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992. Since the beginning of this century, India has given a big push to this policy by becoming a summit level partner of ASEAN (2002) and getting involved in some regional initiatives such as the BIMSTEC and the Ganga Mekong Cooperation and now becoming a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS) in December, 2005.

India – ASEAN

India's interaction with ASEAN in the cold war era was very limited. India declined to get associated with ASEAN in the 1960s when full membership was offered even before the grouping was formed.

It is only with the formulation of the Look-East policy in the last decade (1992), India had started giving this region due importance in the foreign policy. India became a sectoral dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992, a full dialogue partner in 1995, a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 1996, and a summit level partner (on par with China, Japan and Korea) in 2002.

The first India-ASEAN Business Summit was held at New Delhi in October 2002. The then Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee addressed this meet and since then this business summit has become an annual feature before the India-ASEAN Summits, as a forum for networking and exchange of business experiences between policy makers and business leaders from ASEAN and India.

Four India-ASEAN Summits, first in 2002 at Phnom Penh (Cambodia), second in 2003 at Bali (Indonesia), third in 2004 at Vientiane (Laos) and the fourth in 2005 at Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), have taken place till date.

The following agreements have been entered into with ASEAN:

  • Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation (for establishing a FTA in a time frame of 10 years) was concluded in Bali in 2003.
  • An ASEAN-India Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat International Terrorism has been adopted.
  • India has acceded to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in 2003, on which ASEAN was formed initially (in 1967).
  • Agreement on "India-ASEAN Partnership for Peace, Progress and Shared Prosperity" was signed at the 3rd ASEAN-India Summit in Nov 2004.
  • Setting up of Entrepreneurship Development Centres in ASEAN member states – Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam. (The one in Laos is already functional)

The ASEAN region has an abundance of natural resources and significant technological skills. These provide a natural base for the integration between ASEAN and India in both trade and investment. The present level of bilateral trade with ASEAN of nearly US $ 18 billion is reportedly increasing by about 25 % per year. India hopes to reach the level of US $ 30 billion by 2007. India is also improving its relations with the help of other policy decisions like offers of lines of credit, better connectivity through air (open skies policy), rail and road links.

Improving relation with the countries in Asia according to the policy

Thailand. The first Framework Agreement for a bilateral FTA (with an ASEAN nation) was signed with Thailand in October 2003. Under this agreement, the commencement of FTA in Services and Investments will be in 2006 and in Goods from 2010. Some Memorandums of Understanding were also signed in October 2003, on tourism, agriculture and cooperation in biotechnology. A Joint Working Group is also in place for information and intelligence sharing on terrorism.

Malaysia. India is Malaysia's largest trading partner among countries in the south, excluding China and the ASEAN, with the bilateral trade valued at US $ 4.29 billion in 2004. Indian public sector undertakings such as BHEL and IRCON have undertaken and successfully completed a number of projects in Malaysia. There are 57 Indian joint ventures in Malaysia in the fields of palm oil refining, power, railways, civil construction, training and information technology.

During the visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in December 2004, India and Malaysia agreed to initiate a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA). 12 agreement/MOUs were also signed covering wide-ranging cooperation in satellite technology, biotechnology, information technology, infrastructure and education.

Indonesia. During the visit of the Indonesian President, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, to India in November 2005, Indonesia and India agreed to establish a "strategic partnership" based on shared values and commitment to democracy and aimed at broad based development of relations in the political, security, economic, commercial, cultural and science and technology fields. Three MOUs were signed- one on marine and fisheries cooperation, one on establishment of Joint Study Group for CECA and one on training cooperation for training of diplomats.

India has many joint ventures in Indonesia since the 1970s. The bilateral trade currently at around US $ 4 billion will be tripled to US $ 15 billion in the next five years. Indonesia was insistent on the inclusion of India into East Asia Summit and had supported India at the other forums like WTO and OIC.

Myanmar. Myanmar is the only ASEAN country with which India shares both land and maritime boundaries. Hence Myanmar has to be accorded a special position in its foreign policy, especially in view of India's strategic and security concerns. Consequent to visit of Senior General Than Shwe, Chairman SPDC, to India in 2004, the bilateral relations are at an all time high.

India has extended a number of general and project-specific credit lines to Myanmar in the last few years. A number of agreements and MOUs, including the Tripartite Maritime Agreement between India, Myanmar and Thailand, the Border Trade Agreement and an agreement on Cooperation between Civilian Border Authorities, have been signed. Indian companies are involved in oil and gas exploration in Myanmar. A feasibility study has been undertaken for a rail link between India and Myanmar.

India had upgraded the 160-km long Tamu-Kalewa-Kalemyo highway in 2001 and will be maintaining it for the next six years. There is an ongoing project for construction of a trilateral highway from Moreh in India to Mae Sot in Thailand to Bagan in Myanmar, the progress of which is being reviewed regularly by the foreign ministers of the three nations. True to Myanamar's assurances, it has been launching operations against the Indian rebel groups such as NSCN (K) camping in its soil.

Singapore. Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) between India and Singapore was signed on 29 June 2005 during the visit of Singapore Prime Minister to India. This agreement which came into effect on 01 August 2005, includes a bilateral investment promotion treaty, a double taxation avoidance agreement and an air services agreement in addition to an FTA. It may be recalled that it was Singapore that paved the way of India's association with ARF. Lee had also supported India's bid for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council. Singapore along with Indonesia had also supported India's entry in to the East Asian Summit.

Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam

These three economically under developed countries of this region, in comparison to the rest of ASEAN, have enough scope and opportunity for India to extend its influence and reap the benefits.

Since 1981, when India recognized the Hang Samrin regime, India had cordial relations with Cambodia. India has entered into a number of bilateral treaties and agreements for cooperation in the fields of trade, science & technology, agriculture, tourism, air services and visa exemption. India has some major projects in the areas of education, Entrepreneurship development and information technology. India has helped Cambodia in a big way through the ITEC programme.

India and Laos have signed a number of agreements and MOUs in the fields of culture, cooperation in defense, cooperation in science & technology, agricultural cooperation, drugs and illicit trafficking, and exemption of visas for diplomats and officials. India has also set up and Entrepreneurial Development Centre in Laos and will be setting up an Information Technology Centre shortly.

India has a number of bilateral treaties and agreements with Vietnam in the areas of Consular relations, Avoidance of Double Taxation, Narcotics, Science & Technology and Culture. Since 1976, India has extended 14 lines of credit amounting to Rupees 3,610 million to Vietnam. Another credit line of US $ 27 million to Vietnam was signed in August 2004 between Exim Bank of India and Ministry of Finance, Vietnam. India is also helping Vietnam in setting up an Advanced Resource Centre in IT in Hanoi and HRD in the field of IT in six educational institutions in Vietnam.

India has also proposed in the 4th India-ASEAN Summit at Kuala Lumpur in 2005 to set up Centers for English Language Training, tele-medicine and tele-education centers in these three states.

The China Factor: India getting preference over china

China is virtually dominating this region. By the ASEAN-China Accord entered into in November 2004 (during the 10th ASEAN Summit in Vientiane), the world's biggest free trade area has been created removing all tariffs. The tariff cuts that began in 2005 will be completed by 2010 drawing the ASEAN's combined economies of US $ 1 trillion closer to China's US $ 1.4 trillion.

In the Cold war era, India perceived China as dangerous country because of its high military expenditure and ambitious plans in this field. But now the image of China has changed and now is seen as an economic powerhouse. To gain confidence and to build trust among the Asian countries Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, said in a speech during the last ASEAN Summit that "China will continue to seek peace and development through cooperation and will strive to achieve development that will bring about peace, openness, cooperation and harmony as well as benefit to itself and other countries".

Despite the remarks of the Chinese Premier some analysts are of the opinion that China preferred a smaller Asian grouping (without U.S., India, Australia and New Zealand) that can integrate quickly on the economic front and which China can influence more significantly. Perhaps it is this increasing influence of China and its motives that had prompted countries like Singapore and Indonesia to cooperate with India, Australia and New Zealand into the EAS.

Hence India must be aware that it has not been invited to EAS because of its rising economic potential alone but more as a balancing force to offset the China factor. Although it is being said that India and China are not rivals and they can complement rather than compete in the EAS.


Advantages of the policy

* 1991 was a turning point in India's economic relations due to its new Look east policy. Before 1990 India's main focus was on the Soviet Union because of which ties with the other major Asian powers like China and Japan were not strong. India's inward-looking orientation disconnected it from the neighborhood to the East, kept it apart from the economic growth of East Asia. By the turn of the 1990s, India had totally marginalized itself. The first phase of the Look East policy launched by the Narasimha Rao Government in the early 1990s focused on renewing contact with a region that India had drifted away from.

* The Look-East policy has been given a significant thrust since the beginning of this century and the results achieved are evident as mentioned in the report. Now India has entered into the phase two of this policy.
The second phase in India's Look East policy has a new dimension — the development of India's remote northeast. India's search for a new economic relationship with South East Asia is no longer driven by considerations of globalization, but to facilitate development of the Northeast by increasing its connectivity to the outside world. Instead of trying to isolate the Northeast from external influences, as it had done in the past, New Delhi is now recognizing the importance of opening it up for commercial linkages with South East Asia.

* Increased economic integration with Asia has helped India because the core competencies of these economies are different. So India can import the goods from other countries which can be produced by other countries at a lower cost then India. India can export those goods for which India has a competitive advantage. This arrangement is mutually benefaction for India and East Asia countries .Due to this there is a Substantial potential of Asian Economic Integration in helping Asia resume a high growth path
East Asia's Strengths India's Strengths
1) Electronic equipment Computer Software
2) Heavy engineering Light engineering and pharmaceuticals
3) Product development and marketing Process development
4) Underutilized capacity in construction Huge potential demand

* Look east policy has helped India in strengthening its place in the global economy and gets a better deal in its interactions outside the region. America and European countries had entered into a lot of different mutual agreement which has further increased their reputation and bargaining power. India was in danger of isolation in the global economy. India was not getting its due importance. But due to its Look east policy India economy is getting integrated with the Asian economy, so India gets support from Asian countries, which have increased India's importance at global level.

Short comings in the policy

* The Look East policy did not find Japan on its radar and failed to improve India's economic ties with it. Trade with Japan actually declined dramatically dropping its share to one-third of its level of 7 per cent in 1993. One of the causes, of course, was the fact that the Japanese economy was stagnate during this period. But still it is difficult to explain the reason behind this dramatic drop. This was the biggest failure of Look east policy. Failure to involve Japan and a build economic relationship with it also resulted in closing the doors on Japanese foreign direct investment (FDI).

India missed out on Japanese FDI in the in the early 1990's because of its policies that discouraged FDI. Following the reforms, however, the dedicated policy instruments of Look East policy should have succeeded in attracting Japanese FDI to India but that did not happaned. During 1993-2003, Japan's global FDI averaged at $ 50 billion a year, of which India received $ 220 million a year or less than one-fourth of 1 per cent! Even at the regional level, India received just 2 per cent of Japanese FDI. (China's share was 10 times higher at 22 per cent). But now the situation is getting better and trade with Japan is increasing.

* India has entered into a number of pacts, agreements and FTAs but its record for implementation of such accords has been poor as can be seen from the follow up of the Indo-Thai FTA and CECA with Singapore.
The reason for poor implementation of the pacts, agreements and FTAs

* The Indian industry's doubts about its competitive efficiency.
* Indian industry does not want competition at home
* Indian industry scared of cheaper exports to India from these countries.

India should go ahead with proper implementation of the pacts, agreements and FTAs without bothering about the aforementioned factors. The Indian industry will ensure that India will always gain from these arrangements.


Suggested future framework

* The rise of China's economic potential and the resultant influence on this region should not deter India, as the region is looking for an alternative in India because of its fair practices and peace loving nature. India is preferred over China by many countries because India is democratic country. However India has to set its house in order and go ahead with its economic reforms, liberalization process and infrastructure development to gain the confidence of this region, which at present is not all that high. Economic reforms and liberalization process is being negatively affected by the left parties which is supporting the government.

* Each nation has its own characteristics – some are supportive of India, some are predominantly Muslim, some are economically more developed then India, some are underdeveloped and one is a close neighbor influencing the security of India. Hence India should tailor the bilateral relations with every country in different way to suit the requirements of that particular country and that of India.

* ASEAN and EAS hold great promise for India. Adequate interaction with these groupings will result in better integration with this region and facilitate India economic development. Indian businesses, which are looking to go global, will get huge markets in other countries. They will be able to export their goods and get a market share because of low tariffs due to the pacts, agreements and FTAs. Although foreign companies will also get this advantage but Indian companies will be able to compete with these because of their competitiveness.

* CMI and emerging FTAs / RTAs between Asian countries provide foundations for a broader and more ambitious initiative to take the existing India-ASEAN relationship to a higher level, like an Asian Economic Community, which constitutes ASEAN, China, Japan, Korea and India as member countries. Such a community would be roughly the size of the European Union in terms of income, and bigger than NAFTA in terms of trade. It would account for half the world's population and it would hold foreign exchange reserves exceeding those of the EU and NAFTA put together. This can give a greater push to Indian growth.

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
311/22,Zakir Nagar,
New Delhi-110025 ,India
Web Site :

Look east policy with special reference to northeast

Look east policy with special reference to northeast




During the last one year, India's northeast has emerged as a major focus of discussion in India's Look East Policy (LEP). Various ministries in the central government, such as those of External Affairs (MEA), Trade and Commerce, and Development of North Eastern Region have been projecting the LEP and integration with Southeast Asia as the panacea for overcoming the political and security challenges facing the region. The Public Diplomacy Division of the MEA has organized various conclaves, spelling out the strategic necessity for the northeastern states to look towards Southeast Asia and the benefits that can accrue to the region. Not to be left behind, the provincial governments have begun showcasing their natural and human resources and investment potential, guaranteeing handsome returns to foreign investors. Various Northeast Trade and Investment weeks were organized in New Delhi, Guwahati and Bangkok in 2007.

These policy pronouncements and deliberations have generated a new euphoria among the makers of foreign policy regarding the prospect of countering challenges of insurgency and external vulnerability in the northeast by augmenting development and connecting it both with mainstream India and Southeast Asia. If the LEP offers a golden opportunity for the development of the northeastern states, why is the northeast being asked to look east only 15 years after the LEP was articulated in 1992?

In fact, the courtship between India's Northeast and the LEP began soon after India embarked on engaging the CLMV (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam) countries, which were gradually being included in the ASEAN framework. It was due to the politico-strategic vulnerability of the northeast that India began engaging Myanmar and gave up its policy of isolating the ruling military junta. A new stimulus to positioning the northeastern states within the LEP came in the form of India's sub-regional initiatives such as Bangladesh-India-Sri Lanka-Thailand Economic Cooperation (BISTEC, later BIMSTEC) and Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC) which entailed connecting northeastern states with Southeast Asia through road networks.

However, the scope of the engagement remained extremely modest as both the initiatives failed to take off in the face of constant resistance from India's security establishment, represented mainly by the Ministry of Home Affairs and Defence. It was often argued that opening up of borders and greater physical connectivity would expose the region to enhanced scale of armed infiltration and greater degree of external vulnerability. The Northeast's remaining rugged terrain, and an impregnable and inaccessible frontier best suited the security establishment. As a result, efforts towards greater connectivity were stymied by northeastern states' extremely limited connectivity within their own borders. The idea of Moreh-Tamu-Kalewa-Kalemyo road was conceptualized in 1993 but the construction work was completed only in 2001.

The re-positioning of India's Northeast in the LEP brings us to the question - what is so distinct about the new-found necessity of Northeast looking east?

The overall approach to identifying security risks in the region has shifted away from insurgency and the China-threat theory to economic backwardness and limited integration with mainstream India. It is now being argued that an economically underdeveloped northeast is more prone to insurgency, political instability and external security threats. Creating stakeholders by engaging the regional resources in developmental activities and building local capacity would help the Indian state expand the constituencies for peace in the region. Such an approach is being facilitated by the announcement of new ambitious projects, large-scale investment, and entrepreneurial incentives. For example, the energies of the youth could be channelized in a more positive manner by engaging them in developmental activities. While speaking at the Guwahati Conclave in June 2007, Jairam Ramesh, Minister of State for Trade and Commerce, clearly spelt out that the future of India's Northeast lies in "emotional and political integration with the rest of India and economic integration with the rest of Asia."

What are the key agents of such a turnaround in India's policy towards the northeast? Three factors can be identified. First, the Indian economy has registered high growth rates during the last five years. The foreign investment in the country has tripled during the last three years. Second, India's northeastern states are located at the junction of three most important engines of Asian economic growth - mainstream India, ASEAN and China. Finally, there is a greater desire among foreign and Indian companies to invest in the region. The Commerce Minister of Thailand, Krik Krai Jirapet, visited three Northeast Indian states in June 2007 along with a big delegation of Thai corporate leaders.

The newfound discourse of development has, in fact, emerged as the most powerful challenge, till date to the prevailing security mindset among policymakers. The developmental discourse represents everything which was once considered detrimental to India's security. However, a great deal would depend on how the central and provincial governments implement the projects and allow the benefits of development to percolate to the common people of the region.


Look East policy with the development of infrastructure, connectivity and tourism in the northeastern states that act as a bridge between India and Southeast Asia.

northeastern states that focused on finding practical ways to translate the Look East policy into development of the region.

This policy has resulted in an impressive increase in the quantum of bilateral trade and more people-to-people interaction..


The chief ministers of northeastern states laid stress on enhancing connectivity and infrastructure in the region, capacity building, future potential for export and tourism, the possibility of institutional cooperation in training and research.

They also underlined the ongoing action state governments are taking to dovetail national development strategies with various foreign policy initiatives.



Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Envo Projects
311/22,Zakir Nagar,
New Delhi-110025 ,India
Web Site :

Friday, March 14, 2008

Key features of choosing a laptop suitable for you

Key features

Laptop Processors: The central processing unit (CPU) is sometimes described as the most important chip in the computer. It contains the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), so the computer can do calculations, and the control unit that controls the flow of data between the ALU and memory. There's a lot of competition between manufacturers of processors and the speeds they offer, but the plain fact is that while it is heavily featured in the marketing literature even the slower processors (1.4 to 1.6GHz) are fast enough for most uses, even though 3.0GHz is offered on many laptops. Money saved on processors might more usefully be spent on memory. There are two things that really matter with laptop processors: the balance struck between processor power and battery consumption, and the links to mobile technology that enable you to make the most of the laptop's portability. For the first, simply put, processors with the word mobile in their name are going to be the best choice, as in Mobile Intel Pentium 4 or Athlon XP Mobile. These use less power and run cooler (a definite plus in a laptop). For the second, Intel's combination of processor, chipset and wireless card technologies marketed under the brand name Centrino is hard to beat.

Laptop Hard drives: The computer uses the hard drive to store programs and files. The storage capacity of a basic 20GB hard drive is more than enough for most users. However, if you want to work with databases, or digital photos and video files then moving to a bigger hard drive, say 40 or 60GB, may be worthwhile. Some laptops are equipped with 120GB hard drives.

Laptop RAM: Random Access Memory (RAM) is where the computer stores applications that are running and data. Most laptops come with a standard 256MB of Random Access Memory. Moving up to 512 MB installed RAM is a must if you are intending to use the laptop for digital video or downloading music. Even if you are not, buying as much RAM as you can afford is one area of expenditure on computers that will always pay you back in the future. Check out the RAM capacity to see how much room you have for future upgrades.

Laptop Screen sizes: The liquid crystal display (LCD) screens used in laptops come in a range of sizes from 12" to 17" (measured diagonally). Smaller screens mean lighter and more portable laptops but a 15" screen is common. If you are going to be working on the machine a lot then a bigger screen with a decent resolution, say 1024/768, will be better for you in the long run. Higher resolutions mean you can fit more in on the screen, but you may find it harder to read. TFT (thin film transistor) screens are designed to perform better in bright light or sunlight and can produce clearer images. TFT is also called active matrix. TFT LCD screens are more expensive than LCD screens using passive matrix technology but give better displays. Widescreen display is useful for watching DVDs and for presentation work.

Graphics card: Graphics cards, also called video adapters, plug into a computer to give it display capabilities. Some laptops have a universal or shared memory function for display, but a graphics card containing 32 or 64MB of dedicated memory should be your target if you are going to be doing a lot of presentation work or are into gaming.

USB ports: Many laptops come with more than one USB port (four on some models) which makes connecting to peripherals a lot simpler. Newer models are also available with a Firewire connection to transfer digital information from camcorders or MP3 players for example.

Optical drives: CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory) is standard on almost all laptops. Most software programs are now offered on CD. Best for keeping the price of the laptop down.

CD-RW (compact disc, re-writeable) is better because not only can you read CDs you can also write and record data to them. Depending on the CD format you can record once (R) or multiple times (RW). Best if you want to copy music from your CDs into your notebook.

DVD-ROM (DVD, read-only-memory) can read DVD discs as well as CDs. Best if you want to watch DVD movies on your laptop and install software from DVD or CD.

Combination drives. Top of the range here is the DVD+RW/+R with CD-RW. With this you can write data to DVDs (which have up to seven times the storage capacity of a CD) and read DVDs and CDs as well. Best for maximum flexibility.

Removable medias: Some laptops now include slots for a variety of removable media like CompactFlash, Secure Digital or Memory Stick. These can be especially useful if you are using the laptop with other digital devices like cameras, camcorders and PDAs.

Batteries: Most laptops use Lithium Ion batteries. Battery life varies between laptops but somewhere between 2 and 5 hours, depending upon the number of things that you are asking the laptop to perform would be about average. Laptop battery recharging times will also vary - around 75 minutes is common - so buying a spare battery is well worth considering.

Docking stations: If you are using your laptop as a mobile replacement for your desktop then a docking station, sometimes called a port replicator, can save you a lot of bother with peripherals like printers, scanners and speakers. The laptop docking station is connected to all the peripherals and the laptop connects to it rather than each of them individually.

Touch sensitive mouse pads: This replaces the mouse on most laptops. Some users find that initially this can be difficult to operate. It is well worth testing out before you buy if you can.

Warranties: One place where you really might think about taking out this form of insurance is on a laptop. Reliability should not be any worse than any other computer product but the chances of having a mobile mishap are much greater than with desktop models. Screen damage is particularly easy to cause. Most manufacturers supply a warranty. Take this rather than a retailer one and extend it if you can.

Wireless technology: To be truly portable many laptop users take the Centrino route, Intel's mobile processor technology that allows you to use wireless networking. There are three wireless standards, of which the latest - 802.11g - is the most useful providing both a fast and stable connection and backwards compatibility with the older 802.11b standard. In theory, connection speeds of 54Mbps are possible. Realistically you will be looking at something between 15-20Mbps (less if you are using b and g together) but still very fast. An alternative option to the built-in solution is the addition of a wireless LAN card in your PC card slot to connect via hotspots.


Mice: If you really can not cope with a touchpad then a separate mouse (wireless is best) could be the answer.

Memory sticks: Memory Sticks are an easy way to transfer small amounts data from your laptop to a desktop. They should not be treated as a means of permanent storage.

Carrying case: Not all laptops come with a laptop bag as standard.

Anti-virus software: Vital if you are going to make any connection to the internet and you value your data and security. Many laptops are sold with trial versions of products from major suppliers like McAfee or Symantec pre-installed.

Spare keyboard and monitor: If you find yourself using one of the smaller laptops as a desktop replacement you may find purchasing a larger keyboard will help. Wireless options are available. Plugging the laptop into a larger monitor can also help, and its worth remembering that many modern TVs can be used to give a larger monitor area.

Floppy disk drive: Still around, still working, and floppy disk drives are still the cheapest storage solution for data around. Investing in an external floppy disk drive means you can safely back-up very small amounts of data from your laptop and still make use those old floppies you have hanging around.

Printers: Mobile or not at some time you?re going to want to print. The choices to make are between inkjet (cheaper but lower quality), laser (more expensive but better quality, especially for images) and all-in-ones (which include extra features like scanning and copying).



Quran and science


The Table of Contents


Part ONE. 3

Chapter I 4

The Status of Science and Scietists in Islam.. 4

Chapter II 13

The Origin of the Universe. 13

Chapter III 18

The End Of The Universe. 18

Chapter IV.. 25

The Sky. 25

Chapter V.. 35


Chapter VI 45


Chapter VII 49

Mountains. 49

Chapter VIII 52


Chapter IX.. 53


Chapter X.. 57

Fresh Water on Earth. 57

Chapter XI 61

Atmospheric Pressure on the Human Chest 61

Chapter XII 63

Internal or Deep Storms and Waves in Seas and Oceans. 63

Part Two. 64

The Miraculous Nature of the Holy Qur'an concerning the science of embryology and medical science  64

Chapter 1. 64

The development of the science of embryology versus the Holy Qur'an. 64

Chapter II 71

The Ears and Eyes. 71

The Ears: 71

The Eyes: 71

Chapter  III 73

The Skin. 73

Chapter IV.. 74

Finger Prints. 74

Chapter V.. 75

The Primitive Streak. 75

Chapter VI 79

Lechery (Adultery and Polygamy) 79

Chapter VII 81

Practicing Sexual Intercourse During Menstruation. 81

Part Three. 82

A Variety of Topics. 82

Chapter I 82

The Theory of Relativity In TIME. 82

Chapter II 87

The Miraculous use of Numbers in the Holy Qur'an . 87

Chapter III 89


Chapter IV.. 91

Iron. 91


English Reference Books. 93

Arabic Reference Books. 94