Sunday, September 28, 2008
----- Original Message -----From: moninder pal singhSent: Sunday, September 28, 2008 10:06 PMSubject: need ur help frdi m moninder i want to get knowledge of flocculation test actually i m working of water treatement plant as supervisor but i m freshly graduate need a a help of urs i shall be thanksfull to u i need to know simple test to check optimum dosing of coggulent
coggulent basicly use a ferrous sulphate heptahydrate and now using a alum
but want to know about ferrous sulphate
we use 40 kg of ferrous sulphate in a.5 kl tank ahm i hear about ferrous its help to make floccule in alkaline inlent is it true
in our plant ph just 7 to 9 not so much alkaline basicly want to know optimum ph test
hope u help me thanks frd
From: saleem asraf syed imdaadullah <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Gazzali I <email@example.com>
Sent: Sunday, 28 September 2008 20:00:26
Subject: hi Reply from saleem:
Saturday, September 27, 2008
Wednesday, September 24, 2008
Monday, September 22, 2008
The test of reality.
First and foremost, I have again to repeat that finding the right remedy is the most important part of the treatment; without it, no matter how you administer it, if it is not the correct one, it will not work. We all know that but it is better to reaffirm it clearly.
When the remedy is correct the speed of action is remarkable, there is no need to wait for months especially in deep mental/emotional situations; if by the end of the series there has been no result, the remedy was obviously wrong but nothing happened and not too much time was wasted.
In the world of human creations, arts and the human body and as related to the Golden Ratio number, Phi, 1:1.618, the "Sacred Number", known and used since antiquity by many different civilisations
As shown, you will find the Fibonacci series and the Golden Ratio everywhere you look, from microcosm to macrocosm, so why not use it in Homeopathy?
The Fibonacci Series.
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, .is constructed by adding one number to the previous one, which forms the next in the series:
0 + 1 = 1
1 + 1 = 2
2 + 1 = 3
3 + 2 = 5
5 + 3 = 8
8 + 5 =13 and so on, giving the famous Fibonacci Spiral
By itself, each and every potency is low or medium; the combination with the previous one produces a depth of action equivalent to the value of the multiplication.
Compare it to the launch of a space shuttle; the first rocket lifts it somewhat from the ground, the next one puts it in the atmosphere then the boosters come in and propel it into the stratosphere and the empty space
What would happen if the doses were taken too close to each other? Remember the hypothesis that each dose needs to develop it's whole action before giving the next one, the shuttle analogy.
Speed of action.
- J.S. Sepia 5C to 55C, 6 days to cure
- P.S. ulcerative colitis, Pulsatilla 5C to 55C, days are in brackets: 5C (1) 8C (3) 13C (3) 21C (5) 34C (7) 55C: 19 days to cure
J.S. migraines and the pill, Sepia 5C to 55C, cured
- P.S. ulcerative colitis, Pulsatilla 5C to 55C, cured
- S.B. headaches, hay fever, Silica 3C to 55C, cured
I.V. Platina; the first teaspoon of 5C was unremarkable but the second one had an immediate effect lasting for a few days; when it had to be repeated regularly at 24 hours interval, moved to 8C that had an immediate effect and was repeated until needed more frequently; 13C and 21C followed the same pattern; 34C was used every third day until it stopped working; 55C just maintained the situation and we are now at 89C taken when needed to keep the clinical picture stable or help bring it back to stability.
of BOD to COD to know the treatability of wastewater.
Now, let's see what is BOD and COD; and what is their relevance
with reference to wastewater treatment.
**Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)**
The strength of wastewater is judged by BOD. This is defined as the
amount of oxygen required by bacteria while stabilizing the
organics in wastewater under aerobic conditions, at a particular
time and temperature. This can be referred as BOD5, which accounts
for 70% of the total BOD. The measurement of BOD is based on the
principle: determination of dissolved oxygen content of
water/wastewater on the first day and dissolved oxygen content on
the fifth day ('5' in BOD5 indicates this). The difference in
dissolved oxygen concentrations between first day and fifth day is
expressed as BOD of wastewater.
**What does COD of wastewater mean?**
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reflects the concentration of organic
compounds present in wastewater. This measures the total quantity
of oxygen required for oxidation of organics into carbon dioxide
and water. The oxidation of organics in wastewater is carried out
by the action of strong oxidizing agents. Generally, acidified
potassium dichromate is used as an oxidizing agent for the
determination of COD. Silver sulfate is used as the catalyst for
the oxidation of organics in wastewater during the determination of
COD. Mercuric sulfate is added to control the interference of
chloride in the estimation of COD. The method consists of adding a
known concentration of potassium dichromate (added with silver
sulfate and mercuric sulfate) into wastewater containing organic
compounds to be oxidized in the heating condition. After oxidation,
the excess potassium dichromate is back titrated with ferrous
**Importance of COD**
Estimation of COD expresses the total concentration of organics
present in the wastewater. This measures approximately the
theoretical oxygen demand of wastewater. The determination accounts
for about 95% of the organic concentration in wastewater. This
forms about 1.43 times the BOD of wastewater. BOD to COD ratio
reveals the treatability of wastewater. If the ratio of BOD/COD is
above 0.5, the wastewater is considered to be highly biodegradable.
If the ratio is less than 0.3, the wastewater is deemed to undergo
a chemical treatment before the routine biological treatment.
With this mandatory information, you will be able to choose the
exact right wastewater treatment plant that suits your need.
Sunday, September 21, 2008
Please read this web site ECO MUSLIMS---10 Quran Verses On The Environment And Do-able Action Plans
Preservation of Water:Another way of ending poverty is to provide clean water where it's needed. This doesn't have to be a burdensome task. Ask your friends/family to chip in £5 for a community well abroad, your home country perhaps. Tell people to reuse their plastic bottles and donate the cost (£1) to your well-fundraising. Save water in your own homes by fixing leaky taps and request that the masjid caps water usage to limit wastage.
Water is a huge life-providing theme in the Qur'an. God talks about how He creates life through water then sustains it by streams, the rains, rivers and oceans that are homes for so many creatures.In the Qur'an, God uses the analogy of life and death for Muslims to recognise the value of water. Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said that one day people will wage war over rivers of gold. He was talking about water. We have taps that fill our basins with gold, but we cannot afford overflows while people wait for the rains. Third-world countries in desert climates are counting on us to give the cost of our water to them.
By starting something simple like a well-fundraiser you kickstart a chain reaction that will motivate others to do the same. People will call your mosque a Green Mosque for following the prophetic Eco-Wudhuand preserving water. Whomever receives your well/water-pump will be able to plant crops, fruits and trees for generations.
As water is another natural creation, Muslims believe it belongs to God and nobody can monopolise it. Water is for sharing and there is enough water for all.
it is important to be clear that the answers to the following questions reflect the views of the American Muslim scholars that ING has worked with. In other words, we do not speak for or on behalf of all Muslims. In most cases, however, the views of these scholars probably reflect the views of the majority of Sunni Muslims in the U.S. and worldwide.
102. How does Islam view science?
It was repeatedly mentioned in the Qur'an: Forbidding from spoiling the earth after Allah (Exalted and Almighty) has created it suitable and well prepared for the successive human generations. It announced that Allah does not like spoiling or those who spoil in life, this includes spoiling environment, polluting it or being aggressive with it. Also it is forbidden to abuse it in any way that would make it deviate from the purpose of Allah created it for. This would be like showing ingratitude to Allah, that would cause vengeance from Allah, and becomes like a warning to those who perpetrated this, that severe penalty will almost come upon them as what happened before to the `Aad and the Thamud and those who came after them.
"Who did transgress beyond bounds in the land (in the disobedience of Allah) and made therein much mischief. So your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment. Surely your Lord is Ever-Watchful." (89:11-14) Islam urges its followers to have great concern for everything created by Allah, for it is part and parcel of "submission to Allah" to show reverence to all what the Almighty Allah created.
Elaborating more on this, we cite the following:
The Islamic attitude towards the environment that surrounds humanity is not merely restricted to the presence of Allah everywhere but also to the following dimensions:
By submitting to Allah, Islam establishes the bedrock of the relationship between finite, mortal human beings and the infinite Divine, the secular and the sacred. This relationship cannot be understood without first realising the meaning of the "submission" that the "created" should concede in his relationship with the Creator.
Humans have to accept that they are created beings who act as the "agents" of Allah on earth. These agents are creative in their own way but they are not Allah. Humans, however, will become closer to the sacred by operating according to Allah's instructions. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in a Hadith Qudsi (Divine Hadith), quotes Allah as saying: "When a worshipper moves closer to me by good virtues and voluntary acts of worship (nawafil), I will be his hearing by which he can hear, I will be his eyes by which he can see, I will be his hand by which he can act, and his feet by which he can walk. If he asks Me [to give him] I will give him what he wants, and if he asks for protection I will protect him." (Al-`Asqalani, 1959: 11, 341)
Islam, as a way of life, expects human beings to conserve the environment for several reasons which may be summarized as follows:
1- The environment, is Allah's creation. The creation of this earth and all its natural resources is a sign of His wisdom, mercy, power and His other attributes and therefore serves to develop human awareness and understanding of this creator. (Ar-Ra`d, 13: 2-4; 21:79)
2- Muslims should seek to protect and preserve the environment because by so doing they protect Allah's creatures which pray to Him and praise Him. Humankind might not be able to understand how these creatures praise Allah but this does not mean that they do not do so, Allah says: (The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: There is not a thing but celebrates His praise, and yet ye understand not how they declare His Glory!) (Al-Israa' 17: 44)
3- The environment contains Allah's creatures which the Muslim scholars consider to also deserve protection.
4- Also among the reasons why Islam seeks to protect and preserve the environment is that Islam, as a way of life, is established on the concept of good (khayr). Therefore it is expected that Islam will protect the environment once it is understood that such protection is good by itself. The Qur'an states: (He whoso do good an atom's weight will see it. And whoso do ill an atom's weight will see it.) (Az-Zalzalah 99: 7-8)
In Islam, humans are expected to protect the environment since no other creature is able to perform this task. Humans are the only being that Allah has "entrusted" with the responsibility of looking after the earth. This trusteeship is seen by Islam to be so onerous and burdensome that no other creature would 'accept' it. Allah says: (Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it and man assumed it Lo! he is a tyrant and fool.) (Al-Ahzab 33: 72)
In Islam the relationship between humankind and the environment is part of social existence, an existence based on the fact that everything on earth worships the same God. This worship is not merely ritual practice, since rituals are simply the symbolic human manifestation of submission to Allah. The actual devotions are actions, which can be practiced by all the creatures of earth sharing the planet with the human race. Moreover humans are responsible for the welfare and sustenance of the other citizens of this global environment. The Qur'an contains many verses that can be referred to for guidance in this respect. The following verse 21 of the second surah of the Qur'an, is one example:
(O people! Worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that you may ward off (evil). Who hath appointed the earth a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and causeth water to pour down from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah when ye know (better).) (Al-Baqarah 2: 21-22)
The word in this verse which is translated as "may ward off evil" is in Arabic tattaqun. It enjoins piety and awareness which is accompanied by an appreciation of the surrounding environment. In this verse, the Qur'an speaks directly to all groups of people, whether believers, or not. It attempts to mobilize people to the importance of "worshipping Allah" as a symbol and a way of life that enjoins justice and equity in handling the system created by Him.
This system has been placed under human responsibility, to be cared for and not misused as can be concluded by returning to verse 22 ofsurat al-Baqarah. The word lakum (for you) in the phrase "created for you" contains the message that the earth is not for one generation but for every generation, past, present and future and that would include humans as well as other creatures on this earth. Accordingly, rivers, minerals are the property of all. This should be distributed fairly and justly especially when it happens to be owned collectively like the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates
Read More On http://saleemindia.blogspot.in/2011/10/quran-and-environmental-issues.html
Pollution is one form of corruption ("fasal" in Arabic) mentioned in the Glorious Quran eight times. Counting the derivations of the word "fasal" mentioned elsewhere in the Quran raises the number to 49. "Fasal" involves physical corruption like disrupting the environmental phenomena and the contents of the universe (water, soil, food) by foolish human interference in the natural balance created by Allah the Almighty, Who did so wisely, perfectly and infallibly to fit the life of all creatures.
Friday, September 19, 2008
WASTE WATER TREATMENT: MBBR - MOVING BED BIOFILM REACTOR TECHNOLOGY
The original wastewater treatment system consisted of a chemical pre-treatment system, followed by an anaerobic system, which in turn was followed by an activated sludge process. with high chemical and operating costs
MBBR system replaced the chemical pre-treatment system. MBBRs were installed between the equalization tank (EQ) and the activated sludge system. Total reactor volume of the MBBRs is designed for different hydraulic retention time for different types of waste water at average flows and than checked against peak flows. Essentially nutrient levels and DO levels are the only control points for the system.
Effluent from the MBBR is sent to a dissolved air flotation unit, which removes 70-90% of the solids generated, prior to being discharged to the activated sludge system.
The MBBR reactors reduced the incoming organic load from an average soluble BOD by 50-70% . This reduction allowed the activated sludge process to treat the ammonia-nitrogen within the wastewater in a more efficient and effective manner, allowing a higher volume of treated water to be discharged to drain.
The initial MBBR biofilm unit process shaves the loadings peaks and any toxic inhibition effects while removing 50 to 70 percent of the incoming BOD. This pretreatment achieves 2 to 3 times increased capacity compared to a traditional activated sludge process while also being more compact. Furthermore, the MBBR process improves activated sludge characteristics making the activated sludge stage more inherently stable with a waste sludge that is easier to dewater.
The elements provide a large protected surface area for the biofilm and optimal conditions for the bacteria culture to grow and thrive.
The biofilm that is created around each carrier element protects the bacterial cultures from operating excursions to yield a very robust
system for those industrial facilities loaded with process fluctuations. The biofilm also provides a more stable "home" for the bacteria
to grow, so there is less space required compared to other biological systems and far less controls.
An MBBR can be designed for a new facility to remove BOD/COD from wastewater streams or for nitrogen removal.
Existing activated sludge plants can be upgraded to achieve nitrogen and phosphorus removal or higher BOD/COD capacity .
SALIENT FEATURES OF THE SYSTEM:
- Easy to Operate
- No Media Clogging
- No Sludge Return
- Small Footprint
- Low Capital Cost
DETAILED DESIGN & ENGINEERING
- Media Retention
- Aeration Grid
to ~3 ppm.
The bacterial cultures digest the soluble organics, gradually mature, and slough from the media. The cultures form a natural floc
which can be easily separated from the water with the DAF unit. In this case and others, no chemical coagulant or polymer were
necessary to achieve < 10 ppm TSS and over 90% BOD removal.
RO Plant Start-Up
On start up, the inlet valve should open prior to the initiation of the high-pressure pump, to completely fill the system with low pressure water (<100 psi [< 7 Bars]). This "soft start" will prevent hydraulic shock at start-up. Pre-treatment chemical addition should begin at this time (making sure the chemicals are not over-injected). The high-pressure pump should then be started and the system slowly bought on-line, up to design permeate flow.
If starting up after a period of shutdown, flush the permeate to drain for 30 minutes to remove residual preservation chemicals. Produced water permeate can be used when it meets the quality requirement of downstream processes.
Sunday, September 14, 2008
INTRODUCTION The main difficulty is to determine the optimum coagulant dosage related
to the influent of raw water. Excessive coagulant overdosing leads to increased treatment costs and public health concerns, while underdosing leads to a failure to meet the water quality targets and less efficient
operation of the water treatment plant.
Manual methods mainly include jar testing
Jar testing involves taking a raw water sample and applying different quantities of coagulant to each sample. After a short period of time each sample is assessed for water quality and the dosage that produces the optimal result is used as a set point.
Operators change the dose and make a new jar test if the quality of treated water changes.
To conduct jar test on a natural surface water in order to estimate an optimum dosage of aluminum sulfate or ferric sulfate for the removal of suspended matter , To observe the rate of floc formation and sedimentation.
The dose of coagulant which gives the best floc is the optimum dose of coagulants.
PROCEDUREA. DETERMINE OF OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSAGE
- Collect 20 to 50 liters of a natural surface water. Analyze the water for pH, turbidity, color after filtration, and alkalinity.
- Alternatively, make up a synthetic water sample for testing. Record both the water temperature and ambient air temperature.
- Calculate the amount of alkalinity required to react with the maximum dosage of aluminum or ferric sulfate. If necessary, augment the natural alkalinity by the addition of 0.1 N Na2CO3 so that the alkalinity will be at least 0.5 meq/l (25 mg/l as CaCO3).
- Measure exact 1 liter of water into each jar test reactor. Prepare portions of the aluminum or ferric sulfate solution which will yield 10 to 50 mg/l as Al2O3 or Fe2O3 when added to the sample aliquots.
- Mix at 50 rpm to ensure water is completely mixed.
- Measure chemical volumes to achieve desired dose in each reactor.
- Increase mixing speed to 250 rpm. Add the chemicals to each reactor near the vortex. All reactor should be dosed at the same time.
- Rapid mix for 1 min.
- Reduce mixing to 60 rpm for 9 min.; Observe the reactors at 3 min. intervals to detect the formation of flocs. Reduce mixing to 25 rpm for 4 min.; Reduce mixing to 10 rpm for 2 min.
- Turn off mixers and allow particles to settle for 20 min.
Measure the turbidity or color, alkalinity, and pH of the liquid in each jar by sampling at the top, taking care not to disturb the sediment in sampling. Measure the depth of sludge in the beaker.
Measure final pH, turbidity or color of the supernatant of each sample. Measure the depth of sludge in the beaker.
Plot turbidity or color versus pH.
EFFECT OF MIXING (AGGREGATION KINETICS)Prepare identical (optimum) coagulant dosages for all six beakers.
Use the same rapid mix as before but vary the time of slow mix at 30 rpm. Use 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 minutes for the six jars respectively. Terminate mixing by carefully lifting the paddle from the beaker at appropriate time.
Allow 30 minutes for settling.
Measure the color or turbidity and pH of the supernatant in each beaker.
APPARATUSJar test apparatus and beakers
Magnetic stirrer plus magnetic stirring bars
Spectrophotometer or color comparator
Assorted measurement pipettes (1, 5, 10 ml) and volumetric pipettes to 50 ml
Glass or plastic funnels
Ringstands and rings
MATERIALSAluminum sulfate solution, 1 g/l or ferric sulfate solution, 1 g/l
H2SO4, 2 liters each, 5 x 10-2 M, 10-2 M
NaOH,, 1 liter, 10-1 M
Sodium carbonate, 1 liter each, 5 x 10-2 M, 10-2 M
Indicators: methyl orange, phenolphthalein
Synthetic water sample: Add suspended matter with a kaolin, montmorillonite, illite, or bentonite clay and/or the color with extract from boiled leaves or with instant coffee to raw water. Turbidity might be increased to about 40 turbidity units and color to about 80 color units (Clay suspension sample should be mixed for 3 days).
Whatman #1 filter paper
REPORTPrepare tables which facilitate comparisons of coagulant dosages with alkalinity, pH, color, turbidity, and other changes observed. Plot the inverse of turbidity and color versus coagulant dosage as part of the analysis. Plot turbidity versus coagulant dose at different settling times to determine the influence of floc formation and settling characteristics on the selection of coagulant dosage.
Comment on the differences between coagulation with iron and aluminum salts. Define the pH ranges over which each salt should result in effective coagulation.
Determine the rate of aggregation for a particular coagulant dose and pH by plotting the reciprocal of the turbidity versus time. (This would represent a second order reaction with respect to turbidity). Also plot the natural log of the reciprocal turbidity (representing a first order reaction) versus time. Determine which gives the best straight line fit of the data and determine the slope. HAND BOOK : ( From ENVO's Practical Experience of Last Ten Years )
70-85 mg/ liter
Ferric Chloride (Used in STP/ETP)
Ferrous Sulphate(Used in ETP)
To: goswami vivekSent: Sunday, September 14, 2008 2:42 PMSubject: ITS A GAS BIO GASSan Antonio in the United States could become the first city to draw all its energy requirements from methane gas generated from the city's water treatment system through recycling 14,000 tonnes of biosolids in sewage annually. The methane source includes human waste that, if left untreated and unutilised, would only pollute soil and water.
Treating bio-waste, however, could generate an average of 1.5 million cubic feet of gas a day - enough to fill 1,250 tanker trucks daily - according to the system's chief operating officer. A by-product of human and organic waste, methane is the chief component of natural gas that can fuel generators, power plants and furnaces.
Closer home, gobar gas - natural gas obtained from methane released by cattle waste - as a green alternative to diesel and other fossil fuels has been taken up seriously, particularly in rural households. However, a lack of adequate hygiene is a constraint because the gas formation - in the large containers filled with gobar - makes the drum's lid rise, and there is spillage all around the plant. So, in India gobar gas plants are fertile breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other pests. But this is not an insurmountable problem. Gobar gas plants could be expanded and diversified to include energy extraction from all kinds of biomass and the gas so produced could fuel power stations - as San Antonio proposes to do - and with improved sanitation, the experiment could yield good results for several Indian cities.
As a renewable resource, biomass - either from plants, agriculture and forestry residues, animal or human waste - is biodegradable and so is far more eco-friendly than petroleum-derived fuels. And they are relatively easier to source and process, unlike the sophisticated instruments and know-how required to extract oil or refine coal. Ethanol derived from biofuels has a very high octane rating. It might deliver less energy than gasoline, but by blending about 10 per cent ethanol and petrol or diesel together, a feasible balance is achieved with no perceptible effect on fuel economy.
America's space agency NASA is sponsoring a joint project to turn human waste into a power source for spaceships using a process that could also produce other chemicals that can be used on board. Instead of turning up our noses at the idea of recycling human waste and other biosolids in sewage, it would be worthwhile to explore fully and exploit the immense potential hidden in what we routinely regard as being useless.