Monday, October 06, 2008

how much bio gas can i produce

How much Biogas can I produce?
The following is a calculator for estimating the amount of biogas your operation can produce. The calculator is a guideline only and should not be used for design purposes.

Choose the biogas production number that applies to your operation...
Example: 600 sow farrow to finish operation, choose Farrow to Finish


Cubic metres biogas per hog per year

Farrow to Finish


Farrow to Wean









Cubic metres biogas per cow per year



Multiply the number of animals by biogas production number...
Example: 600 hogs x 720 m3 biogas / hog / yr = 432000 m3 biogas / year

Multiply the result by the numbers below for cogeneration of electricity and heat...

____________ x 1.7 kWh/ m3 biogas = _________ kWh of electricity per year
____________ x 7.7 MJ/ m3 biogas = _________ MJ of heat per year

Multiply the result by the numbers below for heat production using boiler....
____________ x 15 MJ/ m3 biogas = _________ MJ of heat per year




Cost analysis of vermi compost plan



Fixed Cost:


Vermi Compost Tank-----------------------------------------------5las

V C Shed---------------------------------------------------------------5las


Go down---------------------------------------------------------------10las

Drying/packing Shed------------------------------------------------4las

With concrete floor

Water Supply system------------------------------------------------3las

Power supply----------------------------------------------------------1.5las

Sieve---------------------------------------------------------------------1 las

Boundary Walls-------------------------------------------------------4las

Packaging Machine---------------------------------------------------1.5las





Variable Cost

Earth Worms----------------------------------------------------------1las

Carrying/transportation, processing-----------------------------2las

Packing Material------------------------------------------ @500/t=2las

Labour charge-------------------------------------------- 50.000/month


Office stationary-----------------------------------------------50, 000/year

Office staff------------------------------------------------------60,000/year





how much bio gas can i produce

How much Biogas can I produce?
The following is a calculator for estimating the amount of biogas your operation can produce. The calculator is a guideline only and should not be used for design purposes.

Choose the biogas production number that applies to your operation...
Example: 600 sow farrow to finish operation, choose Farrow to Finish


Cubic metres biogas per hog per year

Farrow to Finish


Farrow to Wean









Cubic metres biogas per cow per year



Multiply the number of animals by biogas production number...
Example: 600 hogs x 720 m3 biogas / hog / yr = 432000 m3 biogas / year

Multiply the result by the numbers below for cogeneration of electricity and heat...

____________ x 1.7 kWh/ m3 biogas = _________ kWh of electricity per year
____________ x 7.7 MJ/ m3 biogas = _________ MJ of heat per year

Multiply the result by the numbers below for heat production using boiler....
____________ x 15 MJ/ m3 biogas = _________ MJ of heat per year


Sunday, September 28, 2008

new invention in waste water treatment


i m moninder i want to get knowledge of flocculation test

----- Original Message -----
Sent: Sunday, September 28, 2008 10:06 PM
Subject: need ur help frd

i m moninder i want to get knowledge of flocculation test actually i m working of water treatement plant as supervisor but i m freshly graduate need a a help of urs i shall be thanksfull to u i need to know simple test to check optimum dosing of coggulent
coggulent basicly use a ferrous sulphate heptahydrate and now using a alum
but want to know about ferrous sulphate
we use 40 kg of ferrous sulphate in a.5 kl tank ahm i hear about ferrous its help to make floccule in alkaline inlent is it true 
in our plant ph just 7 to 9 not so much alkaline basicly want to know optimum ph test
hope u help me thanks frd

Your blog reflect something about India

hi brother
thank u for the have written a good about you column. Your blog reflect something about India...that is great.
All the best in you attempt to become successful in life

----- Original Message ----
From: saleem asraf syed imdaadullah <>
To: Gazzali I <>
Sent: Sunday, 28 September 2008 20:00:26
Subject: hi Reply from saleem:

added yah on my blogroll
thanks for your interest.. what u found most interesting about my blog ?
Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah

Saturday, September 27, 2008

ALL NOC FORMS FOR Uttar pradesh to set an industry

ALL NOC FORMS FOR Uttar pradesh to set an industry

NOC form UP pollution control board

NOC form UP pollution control board

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Preparations Before Leaving For Hajj

Preparations Before Leaving For Hajj




3.1 General

Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. All Muslims who fulfill certain conditions must perform Hajj at least once in their lifetime. What are these conditions? Are there any prerequisites of Hajj? The answers to these and many other similar questions can help you in making decisions, and in planning for Hajj in a better and more efficient fashion.

3.2 Who Must Perform Hajj

Every Muslim who fulfills the following conditions must perform Hajj at least once in his lifetime:

  1. He must be of sound mind, and in full control of his mental faculties.
  2. He must be old enough, and mature enough to understand the full import, and significance of what he is setting out to do.
  3. He must be financially sound enough to be able not only to bear all of his expenses for Hajj but also to provide adequately for his dependents during his absence and until his return.

3.3 Prerequisites Of Hajj

Since Hajj is an act of worship, it must be performed in peace, and with single minded devotion. There are a number of simple, yet important, things you can do to get in the right frame of mind for this unique experience. All of these are self-evident and are based on common sense. They are reiterated below for completeness of the discussion and as a reminder:

  1. Your intention must be to perform Hajj solely for the sake of Allah. Considerations of pleasing or impressing others with your show of piety should never be a factor.
  2. All Hajj expenses must be paid out of money obtained through legitimate (Halal) means. Money obtained through illegitimate or doubtful means is not acceptable.
  3. All of your debts and financial obligations must be fully discharged before you start your journey and, where necessary, a written acknowledgement of the transaction obtained for future use.
  4. You must make an honest effort to resolve your outstanding differences with others and seek forgiveness from those you may have hurt in any way in the past. This is based on specific instructions of Rasool Allah (pbuh) and must be followed for the Hajj to be meaningful.

3.4 Preparations For Hajj

Since Hajj is a once-in-a-lifetime experience for most people, the importance of early and adequate preparation cannot be over-emphasized. There is a considerable investment of money, time, and physical effort required for the Pilgrimage to be fulfilling and meaningful. Information has to be collected, itineraries must be worked out, and documents have to be readied. The purpose of these preparations is not only to minimize physical discomfort, emotional aggravation and monetary expenses, but also to enable you to perform Hajj in relative peace of heart and mind. Therefore, it makes sense to be as ready as possible for this momentous journey of self-discovery, self-appraisal, and spiritual enlightenment.

Arrangements must be started early enough so that you are not rushed for time in the few days before your voyage commences. The paperwork, shopping, finalizing your travel and residential arrangements inside Saudi Arabia etc., consume a great deal of time. Three to four months ahead of your actual date of departure is a good estimate for starting your preparations. Your travel agent, or a knowledgeable friend who has performed Hajj recently, can also guide you in your preparations. Be sure to apply a "factor of safety" to their recommendations and allow yourself a somewhat greater period of preparation than they advise!

The following guidelines are intended to get you started in the right direction. Since individual needs and preferences vary widely you will, in all probability, add to the list as you prepare for the journey:

  1. Travel Agent

Choose a travel agent who offers a wide selection of "packages" for Hajj. There are a large number of travel agencies all over the country that offer Hajj services, and not all of their products are of equal quality and value. Choosing the right agent is of crucial importance. Hopefully, a representative of your travel agent will be your constant guide and trouble shooter during Hajj. Invest time and effort in this essential phase of your preparation.

Talk to friends and acquaintances who may have recently used the services of various companies and ask them for recommendations. The quality of service and commitment to the comfort and well-being of the pilgrims vary significantly among travel agents. Whereas a good and responsible agent can "make" your Hajj, a bad one can just as easily "break" it.

Be sure to ask the travel agent specific questions and have him give you specific answers:

  1. What will be the duration of your stay in Mecca and Medina? What dates? Is the program flexible or will it allow no changes once it is made? Is there any additional cost to such changes? If so, what is it?
  2. How far away will you be staying from Haram ash Shareef, both in Mecca and in Medina? If your place of residence is not within easy walking distance (10-15 minutes), what type of transportation to and from Haram ash Shareef will be made available? How often during the day will it be available?
  3. Will a representative of the travel agent who is fully conversant with the rites of Hajj, and Saudi rules and procedures for customs, immigration, and travel be with you at all times? Will he stay in Saudi Arabia for the duration of your visit? You do not want to be left in Saudi Arabia without adequate guidance and assistance. The laws and procedures there can be very difficult, frustrating, and time-consuming.
  4. Will the representative of the agent be conversant with the Arabic language? If not, will an interpreter be provided in Saudi Arabia? Most Saudi authorities do not speak English, and your command of Arabic is likely to be limited.
  5. Will you have the option of travelling within Saudi Arabia, (for example from Mecca to Medina), in a taxi hired by you at your own expense instead of the prepaid bus provided by your muallim? How about possible return by air from Medina to Jeddah on your way out of the country instead of the usual prepaid bus? Get a good idea of this additional expense.

    You may want to use the above options in view of the fact that the bus journeys during Hajj season can be nerve-racking. For example, a bus journey from Mecca to Medina (approximately 400 km or 250 miles) can take as long as twenty to thirty hours, whereas a taxi will cover the same distance in three to four hours. The small additional cost you will incur is well worth the money in terms of time saved and physical discomfort avoided.

    If you choose to use any of the alternate travel options (and it is highly recommend that you give them very serious consideration), be sure to redeem your unused bus coupons at Jeddah airport on your way out. Your travel agent should be able to help you in this.

  6. What kind of arrangements will be made for your stay in Mina and Arafat? How about the food arrangements in Mina, Arafat, and Muzdalifah?
  7. Does the price of your package include meals? See if the agents make an effort to vary the menu. You may have to supplement your meals with milk, fruits etc. Food supplied by the agents tends to be monotonous, and the lack of variety is likely to kill your appetite after a couple of days!
  8. Will the agent arrange for a sacrifice on your behalf on the 10th of Zul Hijjah? This is a common service agents often provide for a small fee. They will inform you of the time of the sacrifice so that you may perform other rites accordingly.

  1. Vaccinations

    You will need certain vaccinations for the issuance of a Hajj visa. The World Health Organization (WHO) issues annual guidelines and requirements concerning vaccinations for travel to various countries including Saudi Arabia. Your physician will have the necessary information or will be able to access it readily.

    Check either with your travel agent or the Saudi Arabian Embassy for additional requirements. The Saudi Government requirements are usually stricter than the WHO recommendations. For instance, whereas the WHO recommended immunization against only meningococcal meningitis for travel to Saudi Arabia in 1997, the Saudi authorities required immunization against cholera also.

    Your doctor may recommend additional vaccinations in the light of his knowledge and experience. The writer's doctor (a specialist in infectious diseases) recommended and administered immunization against typhoid fever, polio, pneumonia, diphtheria/tetanus (D/T) and malaria.

    This may sound like "over-kill" and it probably is in most cases. However, it can also save you a lot of worry and misery in those unfortunate instances where extra care is needed. To cite an example : in 1997 there was an outbreak of typhoid in India and some of the pilgrims in the writer's group, who travelled to India after Hajj, became seriously ill with the illness while there. It is possible that they contracted the disease from carriers among the Indian pilgrims in Saudi Arabia, or they may have contracted the disease in India itself. In any case, earlier vaccination against the disease would have saved them from much suffering and anxiety. Had they contracted typhoid in Saudi Arabia itself from the Indian pilgrims, they would have had serious problems completing their Hajj.

    Be sure to obtain an official Vaccination Record Book (the "Yellow Book") from your County or State Health Department. Have your physician fill it out, sign it, and stamp it. Anything less may be unacceptable to the Saudi visa authorities, and you don't want your visa application rejected for a small detail like this. Keep the vaccination record book with your other important documents and take it with you to Saudi Arabia. You never know when you may need it.


  2. Documents

  1. Saudi Government regulations require your passport to be valid for at least six months past the date of your departure. If it is not, have its validity extended or get a new passport well ahead of time. It takes several weeks for a passport to be issued or extended under normal circumstances. Your local post office should have the necessary forms and other relevant information.

    If you are not a U.S. citizen and hold a "green card", your passport also needs to be valid for six months past the date of your departure. Your travel agent will be able to advise you of any additional requirements.

  2. You will need a round-trip ticket to Saudi Arabia for a Hajj visa to be issued. Your travel agent will ask you for a specific package of documents to be submitted with your visa application. Normally, the agent will take care of the visa application as a part of his services.
  3. Your travel agent will probably ask you for four to five passport-sized pictures for a visa and other paper work. Have an additional four to five copies of the photos made and take them with you to Saudi Arabia. They may be needed for ID cards issued by your muallim and other Saudi documents and procedures. Having spare pictures on hand will save you the time, aggravation, and expense involved in having them made in a foreign land.
  4. If you were born in the U.S.A., you may be required to have a certificate issued by a competent authority (e.g., the Imam of your local mosque) stating that you are a Muslim. Since non-muslims are not allowed in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, such a document is of crucial importance, especially if you do not happen to have a typical Muslim name. Your travel agent or the Saudi Embassy can advise you about the details of the said certificate.
  5. Prepare a Last Will and Testament and have it properly notarized. Consult an attorney if it is a complicated will, or if you have concerns about your assets and property in case of something untoward happening to you during Hajj. Leave the original in a safety deposit box accessible to a member of your family. The executor/executrix of your will should also be given a copy, and your attorney should probably retain a copy also. Have him explain to you, and the immediate members of your family affected by the will, the probate laws of your state and advise them as to the best course of action in case of your death abroad.

  1. General

  1. You will be exerting considerable physical effort during Hajj. All Hajj rites (Tawaf, Sai, Rummy etc.) require a great deal of strength and endurance. The constant crush of hundreds of thousands of other pilgrims, each trying to perform the same rites at the same time in limited spaces and very hot weather, compounds the demands on your physical conditioning and mental toughness.

    In order to be prepared for the rigors expected of you, you must be in good physical shape. To achieve this, start a program of brisk walking and jogging for twenty to thirty minutes a day about three to four months before your departure. Gradually increase this regimen to an hour every day or every other day.

    After a few days of walking/jogging start reciting audibly the Talbiyah and the prayers for Tawaf.This will keep your mind occupied during the monotony of the exercise, and will also help you get in a peaceful frame of mind. Concentrating on the meaning of the prayers will help you get ready for the actual Hajj as well.

  2. Obtain and study books on Hajj and its rites if you wish to know more about its history and traditions. Familiarize yourself with all aspects of the Hajj process. Memorize the prayers you will be reciting and also learn their meaning. It requires very little effort to do so and it is so much more fulfilling and rewarding when you understand what you recite. It serves little purpose to recite prayers mindlessly with no comprehension of the words spoken.

    The more you know about Hajj, its obligations, and &#9;prohibitions, the more comfortable and at peace you will feel during the whole process. You will be confident of what you are doing, and will also be independent of the advice and prompting of your friends or a mutawwif. Your prayers will bear the hallmark of the single-mindedness and devotion born of knowledge and confidence. You will also be able to help and guide your less knowledgeable companions, answer their questions, and allay their fears.

    Some people do not take the trouble of learning the &#9;rites and prayers of Hajj themselves and, consequently, depend on professional mutawwifs for the performance of these rites. You will find such people performing the Tawaf under the leadership of these professionals, trying to keep up with their "leader" in the milling throngs of pilgrims around the Kabah, and at the same time, trying to repeat the prayers intoned by their mutawwif! With a little bit of effort, you can avoid the problems and frustrations of trying to follow some one else closely enough in a vast, moving crowd to listen to and parrot his intonations.

  3. A female pilgrim must travel in the company of her husband or a mahram i.e., a member of her immediate family with whom her marriage is expressly prohibited by the shariah e.g., father, brother, son, uncle, etc. A female pilgrim, who is forty five years of age or older, may be allowed to travel with a group of pilgrims without a mahram if a family in the group sponsors her. Ask your agent for details.

3.5 Things To Take With You

The following is a fairly comprehensive list of things you will need to take with you to make your journey, and subsequent stay in Saudi Arabia safe, convenient, and relatively care-free. Since personal needs and preferences vary, you may want to make changes in this list to suit your own requirements.

  1. Ihram

The Ihram consists of two pieces of white, unsewn and &#9;plain cloth, either 100% cotton or light terry-cloth. These are cool to wear and also provide for better absorption of the heavy perspiration you will inevitably experience during Hajj. The sizes of the two pieces are as follows:

Bottom Part : 45" (1 1/4 yd) x 120" (3 1/3 yd)

Top Part : 45" (1 1/4 yd) x 72" (2 yd)

  1. Tear off two, two to three inch wide strips of a sufficient length from the same material. Use one as a belt to secure the bottom portion of the Ihram. Keep the other as a spare. An ordinary belt or fanny belt may also be used for the same purpose, but a strip of Ihram cloth is a lot more practical, and unobtrusive. It keeps the Ihram firmly in place and, unlike a fanny belt or pouch, does not have to be inspected by the police at the entrance to the Haram ash Shareef.
  2. Tear off an eight to ten inch wide strip of sufficient length from the same material. Use it to secure money, credit cards, airline ticket, etc. around your midriff under the Ihram. Use a plastic sandwich bag inside this make-shift pouch to keep these things dry, and secure. This is as pilfer-proof as possible and,unlike a belt or fanny pouch, does not attract the unwanted attention of pickpockets and thieves. You may still use a fanny pouch to carry other things such as medication, pen, a handkerchief, and a small amount of money for daily use. Your fanny pouch will be inspected by the police at the entrance to Haram ash Shareef in Mecca and Medina. Be patient and understanding as the police are only doing their job.

  1. Medication

Gastrointestinal and respiratory infections are very &#9;common during Hajj . People from all over the world bring with them all kinds of infections, and the unavoidable closeness of the hundreds of thousands of pilgrims facilitates easy spread of these illnesses. Fatigue, and lack of sleep from the physically demanding regimen of Hajj rites as well as the over-enthusiastic exertions in prayers and devotions, lower one's immunity and resistance, thereby making one more vulnerable to disease. However, you can take elementary precautions to minimize your chances of becoming ill, and also to ensure that you will get back on your feet faster should you get sick. Getting and staying in good physical shape by regular exercise prior to your departure is a good first step. You can also carry certain medicines with you for use later.

  1. Ask your doctor to prescribe a broad-spectrum antibiotic to be taken prophylactically (i.e., as a preventive measure) throughout your stay in Saudi Arabia. The writer's doctor prescribed 250 mg of the antibiotic CIPRO to be taken daily. He found it to be very helpful and effective as he was about the only person in his group of approximately seventy five people who remained healthy and free of all infections during his stay. CIPRO is easily available in Saudi Arabia. Some people were prescribed AMOXICILLIN by Saudi doctors and pharmacists with good results. Most medicines are available over the counter in Saudi Arabia, and even pharmacists readily prescribe medication. However it is preferable to consult your doctor in the U.S.A. for your needs for obvious reasons.
  2. Carry a reasonable supply of over-the-counter drugs such as :


    TYLENOL PM (as a sleep-aid)

    BENGAY, ASPERCREME (for muscular pain)

    PEPTOBISMOL, IMMODIUM (for diarrhea)

    EMETROL (for nausea)


  1. Waist Pouch (Fanny Pouch)

    Keep valuables (documents, money, travellers' checks, keys, credit cards, etc.) in the fanny pouch around your waist at all times. Do not ever leave your home without it. Be especially careful and wary in crowded places. Unfortunately, there are thieves and pickpockets even inside Haram ash Shareef! Hold on to the pouch with your hand in crowds e.g., while doing Tawaf or when visiting Al Masjid un Nabawi in Medina. Buy a good quality fanny belt or pouch. It is a small but a very good investment.

  2. Suitcase

    Hard-cased, high quality luggage with a built-in locking system is highly recommended. Do not use a soft, vinyl suitcase with outside hasps for locks. Both the suitcase as well as the locks can be easily cut and the contents stolen. Many people have the mistaken notion that every one in and around the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and Al Haram ash Shareef is a God fearing, devoted Muslim. Therefore, they feel immune from criminal activity. Unfortunately, that is just not true. Inspite of the severe punishments awarded to convicted criminals by Saudi authorities, crime does exist. Pickpockets and crooks find it easy to prey on unsuspecting pilgrims whose guard is down because of their preoccupation with Hajj activities.

    Always keep your suitcase locked and do not ever leave money, important papers or other valuables in it.Your residential room will be periodically cleaned by the cleaning staff, and the best way to keep every one honest is not to offer any temptation. Take two sets of keys for your suitcase. Keep one set in the fanny pouch, and the other in a separate, and safe location.

  3. Money

Take a sufficient amount of currency to cover your projected expenses. It is difficult to recommend an amount since individual needs, travel and living arrangements, shopping plans etc. vary widely. Only you can decide on the amount to carry. In any event,do not advertise to others either the amount of money you possess or its place of safekeeping. You can never be too careful.The following are some useful guidelines in this area:

  1. Have most of your money in the form of travellers' checks. They are safe to carry, can be cashed almost anywhere, and are easily replaced in case of theft or loss. Since your passport will have been taken from you for the duration of your stay by the Saudi authorities in Jeddah, the ID card issued by your muallim will most probably be used for check cashing purposes. The importance of this card cannot be over-emphasized. Take good care of it!

    Besides the Saudi banks, the travellers' checks can also be cashed at the numerous "sarrafs" (money changers) located in the market in Mecca and Medina.

  2. Carry a small amount of Saudi riyals with you. A minimum of one thousand riyals (1 Dollar = 3.75 Riyals) is recommended. You can purchase them at almost all currency exchanges located in major American airports. This Saudi currency will help you take care of your immediate expenses upon your arrival until you become familiar with the local system. You will also save time and aggravation associated with making trips to the banks to cash your checks. All banks tend to be crowded during the Hajj season and may also be closed at certain times of the day and certain days of the week.
  3. Take only one credit card with you to minimize problems in case of its loss. Make sure that you can use it to charge telephone calls also. Do not forget to carry the information required to contact the credit card issuing institution in case of its theft or misplacement.
  4. Take some U.S. currency also with you. You can exchange it for Saudi currency everywhere in emergencies, and may need it immediately upon your return to the U.S.A.

  1. Clothing

    Saudi Arabia is a very hot part of the world most of the year. The presence of two to three million pilgrims during Hajj in rather congested spaces with the inevitable pushing and shoving adds to the discomfort. The Hajj rites, ziyarat (i.e., visiting places of religious or historical interest), shopping, etc. require considerable walking and physical exertion. Consequently, light and airy clothes for street wear are the best.

    Take enough changes of clothes to make your stay comfortable, but be careful not to overburden yourself with unnecessary clothes. In the hot Saudi Arabian weather, one set of clothes lasts only a day. Professional laundry facilities are available in Saudi Arabia, though coin-operated laundries are a rarity. Getting your clothes cleaned professionally is quite expensive, particularly as the prices tend to sky-rocket during the Hajj season.

    Some do-it-yourself light laundry may be necessary and is, indeed, highly recommended. It is a good idea to pack some laundry detergent, and wash your Ihram and other light items yourself. You will have a considerable amount of spare time before and after Hajj. Use it for "housekeeping".

    For street wear, Indo-Pak shalwar-qamees, and kurta-pajama as well as the Saudi thoub (a one-piece head-to-toe garment) are ideal and are recommended. Thoubs are easily available everywhere in Saudi Arabia.

    Depending on the time of the year, you may want to pack a light sweater for early morning wear in Medina, which tends to be cool at that time of day in November and December.

  2. Foods/Snacks/Water

There is no real need for you to carry items of food with you. Everything is readily available in Saudi Arabia at a reasonable cost. Saudi authorities do not allow perishable food items to be brought into the country in significant quantities anyway. Packaged and canned products in limited quantities, however, may be brought in by tourists and pilgrims. For emergencies and during periods of long waiting (e.g., at Jeddah airport) carry-on food may come in useful and handy. All kinds of food are available at Jeddah airport also. Some people may, however, prefer to use their own food immediately upon arrival in a foreign land. Some general guidelines are given below:

  1. A couple of packs of cookies and crackers are helpful and provide a good snack. Remove them from their boxes; they occupy much less space as individual rolls. Granola bars, packaged dates, fig newtons and similar items are recommended also.
  2. All varieties of fruits are easily obtainable everywhere in Saudi Arabia and provide much needed flavor and nutrition. Peelable fruits (bananas, oranges etc.) are recommended to minimize exposure to infection from insanitary handling. Wash all fruits carefully before use, and avoid fruits and food exposed to the elements.
  3. Soft drinks of all kinds are obtainable in Saudi Arabia at all major and minor shopping establishments, and are entirely safe to drink. Bottled water is cheap, and should be the only water you drink.Tap water or water from any other source (except, of course, the Zam-Zam water) should not be used for drinking purposes.
  4. Milk, yogurt, buttermilk, ice cream, and other dairy products are widely available, and should be liberally used to supplement your diet.
  5. Take two 18-oz cans of powdered POWERADE or GATORADE with you. Mixed directly with a bottle of cold water, they make for a nutritious and delicious drink and also serve to replenish body salts and chemicals lost through the inevitable heavy perspiration.

  1. Miscellaneous

The following is a list of items of daily use you should carry with you. They will make your life easier, and your stay in Saudi Arabia more comfortable.

  1. multi-blade pocket knife, can opener, nail clipper, small scissors.
  2. tooth brush, tooth paste, disposable razors, shaving cream, small mirror, comb, toilet paper (2 rolls), napkins, soap (2 cakes), plastic soap dish, small shampoo bottle, deodorant, chapstick, small vaseline, tooth picks.
  3. pocket Quran, tasbeeh,pen, pencil, notebook.
  4. slippers (flip-flops, thongs, chappals), sneakers, folding umbrella, sunglasses (or clip-on sunshades), small flash light with extra batteries, travel alarm clock, elastic eye-glass holder, baseball cap, 10 zippered sandwich bags, 4 garbage bags, plastic spoons, laundry detergent, 6 plastic grocery bags.
  5. towels (2 large, 2 small), musalla (i.e. prayer rug), one heavy sheet, inflatable pillow.


Courtesy of Islamic Foundation UK

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Mobile : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025

Monday, September 22, 2008

homeopathy potency how to choose

The test of reality.

First and foremost, I have again to repeat that finding the right remedy is the most important part of the treatment; without it, no matter how you administer it, if it is not the correct one, it will not work. We all know that but it is better to reaffirm it clearly.

When the remedy is correct the speed of action is remarkable, there is no need to wait for months especially in deep mental/emotional situations; if by the end of the series there has been no result, the remedy was obviously wrong…but nothing happened and not too much time was wasted.


In the world of human creations, arts and the human body and as related to the Golden Ratio number, Phi, 1:1.618, the "Sacred Number", known and used since antiquity by many different civilisations

As shown, you will find the Fibonacci series and the Golden Ratio everywhere you look, from microcosm to macrocosm, so why not use it in Homeopathy?

The Fibonacci Series.

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,….is constructed by adding one number to the previous one, which forms the next in the series:

0 + 1 = 1

1 + 1 = 2

2 + 1 = 3

3 + 2 = 5

5 + 3 = 8

8 + 5 =13 and so on, giving the famous Fibonacci Spiral

By itself, each and every potency is low or medium; the combination with the previous one produces a depth of action equivalent to the value of the multiplication.

Compare it to the launch of a space shuttle; the first rocket lifts it somewhat from the ground, the next one puts it in the atmosphere then the boosters come in and propel it into the stratosphere and the empty space

What would happen if the doses were taken too close to each other? Remember the hypothesis that each dose needs to develop it's whole action before giving the next one, the shuttle analogy.

Speed of action.

- J.S. Sepia 5C to 55C, 6 days to cure

- P.S. ulcerative colitis, Pulsatilla 5C to 55C, days are in brackets: 5C (1) 8C (3) 13C (3) 21C (5) 34C (7) 55C: 19 days to cure

J.S. migraines and the pill, Sepia 5C to 55C, cured

- P.S. ulcerative colitis, Pulsatilla 5C to 55C, cured

- S.B. headaches, hay fever, Silica 3C to 55C, cured

I.V. Platina; the first teaspoon of 5C was unremarkable but the second one had an immediate effect lasting for a few days; when it had to be repeated regularly at 24 hours interval, moved to 8C that had an immediate effect and was repeated until needed more frequently; 13C and 21C followed the same pattern; 34C was used every third day until it stopped working; 55C just maintained the situation and we are now at 89C taken when needed to keep the clinical picture stable or help bring it back to stability.

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Mobile : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025

choose the exact waste water treatment method BOD/COD

find out the ratio
of BOD to COD to know the treatability of wastewater.

Now, let's see what is BOD and COD; and what is their relevance
with reference to wastewater treatment.

**Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)**

The strength of wastewater is judged by BOD. This is defined as the
amount of oxygen required by bacteria while stabilizing the
organics in wastewater under aerobic conditions, at a particular
time and temperature. This can be referred as BOD5, which accounts
for 70% of the total BOD. The measurement of BOD is based on the
principle: determination of dissolved oxygen content of
water/wastewater on the first day and dissolved oxygen content on
the fifth day ('5' in BOD5 indicates this). The difference in
dissolved oxygen concentrations between first day and fifth day is
expressed as BOD of wastewater.

**What does COD of wastewater mean?**

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reflects the concentration of organic
compounds present in wastewater. This measures the total quantity
of oxygen required for oxidation of organics into carbon dioxide
and water. The oxidation of organics in wastewater is carried out
by the action of strong oxidizing agents. Generally, acidified
potassium dichromate is used as an oxidizing agent for the
determination of COD. Silver sulfate is used as the catalyst for
the oxidation of organics in wastewater during the determination of
COD. Mercuric sulfate is added to control the interference of
chloride in the estimation of COD. The method consists of adding a
known concentration of potassium dichromate (added with silver
sulfate and mercuric sulfate) into wastewater containing organic
compounds to be oxidized in the heating condition. After oxidation,
the excess potassium dichromate is back titrated with ferrous
ammonium sulfate.

**Importance of COD**

Estimation of COD expresses the total concentration of organics
present in the wastewater. This measures approximately the
theoretical oxygen demand of wastewater. The determination accounts
for about 95% of the organic concentration in wastewater. This
forms about 1.43 times the BOD of wastewater. BOD to COD ratio
reveals the treatability of wastewater. If the ratio of BOD/COD is
above 0.5, the wastewater is considered to be highly biodegradable.
If the ratio is less than 0.3, the wastewater is deemed to undergo
a chemical treatment before the routine biological treatment.

With this mandatory information, you will be able to choose the
exact right wastewater treatment plant that suits your need.

Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
Mobile : 9899300371
311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025

Sunday, September 21, 2008


Please read this web site ECO MUSLIMS---10 Quran Verses On The Environment And Do-able Action Plans
Preservation of Water:Another way of ending poverty is to provide clean water where it's needed. This doesn't have to be a burdensome task. Ask your friends/family to chip in £5 for a community well abroad, your home country perhaps. Tell people to reuse their plastic bottles and donate the cost (£1) to your well-fundraising. Save water in your own homes by fixing leaky taps and request that the masjid caps water usage to limit wastage.

Water is a huge life-providing theme in the Qur'an. God talks about how He creates life through water then sustains it by streams, the rains, rivers and oceans that are homes for so many creatures.In the Qur'an, God uses the analogy of life and death for Muslims to recognise the value of water. Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said that one day people will wage war over rivers of gold. He was talking about water. We have taps that fill our basins with gold, but we cannot afford overflows while people wait for the rains. Third-world countries in desert climates are counting on us to give the cost of our water to them.

By starting something simple like a well-fundraiser you kickstart a chain reaction that will motivate others to do the same. People will call your mosque a Green Mosque for following the prophetic Eco-Wudhuand preserving water. Whomever receives your well/water-pump will be able to plant crops, fruits and trees for generations. 
As water is another natural creation, Muslims believe it belongs to God and nobody can monopolise it. Water is for sharing and there is enough water for all.

it is important to be clear that the answers to the following questions reflect the views of the American Muslim scholars that ING has worked with. In other words, we do not speak for or on behalf of all Muslims. In most cases, however, the views of these scholars probably reflect the views of the majority of Sunni Muslims in the U.S. and worldwide.

102. How does Islam view science?

There are numerous verses in the Qur’an that reference scientific phenomena, including discussions of astronomy, geography, biology, and other aspects of nature and the universe. The Qur’an includes, for instance, a detailed description of the different stages that the embryo goes through in the womb, as well as descriptions of the creation of the earth and of the interaction between fresh and salt water.
These repeated Qur’anic references to nature and injunctions to seek knowledge helped create a fruitful environment for science in Islamic history when during the “Golden Age of Islam” in the Middle Ages, Muslims were in the forefront of such fields as mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and medicine. Unfortunately, the economic and political decline of the Muslim world in later centuries brought about a decline in scientific and technological endeavor until recent decades.
However, today, many American Muslims and Muslims worldwide work in science-based professions such as medicine, dentistry, and various fields of engineering, and many are leaders in their fields.

104. What is Islam’s view of the environment and the importance of protecting it?

There are hundreds of verses throughout the Qur’an that describe the wonders of creation and nature and call upon humankind to reflect on them as signs of God. Humans are described as stewards over this earth (as is the case in Jewish and Christian scripture), entrusted with its oversight. There are also numerous Qur’anic as well as prophetic injunctions to avoid waste, excess, and harm to other forms of creation. A prophetic saying forbids wasting water, even when washing in a river. Living a balanced, moderate lifestyle is an important Islamic principle advocated by most Muslim scholars that applies to all aspects of life, including care of the earth and all of creation.

It was repeatedly mentioned in the Qur'an: Forbidding from spoiling the earth after Allah (Exalted and Almighty) has created it suitable and well prepared for the successive human generations. It announced that Allah does not like spoiling or those who spoil in life, this includes spoiling environment, polluting it or being aggressive with it. Also it is forbidden to abuse it in any way that would make it deviate from the purpose of Allah created it for. This would be like showing ingratitude to Allah, that would cause vengeance from Allah, and becomes like a warning to those who perpetrated this, that severe penalty will almost come upon them as what happened before to the `Aad and the Thamud and those who came after them.
"Who did transgress beyond bounds in the land (in the disobedience of Allah) and made therein much mischief. So your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment. Surely your Lord is Ever-Watchful." (89:11-14) Islam urges its followers to have great concern for everything created by Allah, for it is part and parcel of "submission to Allah" to show reverence to all what the Almighty Allah created.
Elaborating more on this, we cite the following:

The Islamic attitude towards the environment that surrounds humanity is not merely restricted to the presence of Allah everywhere but also to the following dimensions:

By submitting to Allah, Islam establishes the bedrock of the relationship between finite, mortal human beings and the infinite Divine, the secular and the sacred. This relationship cannot be understood without first realising the meaning of the "submission" that the "created" should concede in his relationship with the Creator.

Humans have to accept that they are created beings who act as the "agents" of Allah on earth. These agents are creative in their own way but they are not Allah. Humans, however, will become closer to the sacred by operating according to Allah's instructions. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in a Hadith Qudsi (Divine Hadith), quotes Allah as saying: "When a worshipper moves closer to me by good virtues and voluntary acts of worship (nawafil), I will be his hearing by which he can hear, I will be his eyes by which he can see, I will be his hand by which he can act, and his feet by which he can walk. If he asks Me [to give him] I will give him what he wants, and if he asks for protection I will protect him." (Al-`Asqalani, 1959: 11, 341)

Islam, as a way of life, expects human beings to conserve the environment for several reasons which may be summarized as follows:

1- The environment, is Allah's creation. The creation of this earth and all its natural resources is a sign of His wisdom, mercy, power and His other attributes and therefore serves to develop human awareness and understanding of this creator. (Ar-Ra`d, 13: 2-4; 21:79)

2- Muslims should seek to protect and preserve the environment because by so doing they protect Allah's creatures which pray to Him and praise Him. Humankind might not be able to understand how these creatures praise Allah but this does not mean that they do not do so, Allah says: (The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: There is not a thing but celebrates His praise, and yet ye understand not how they declare His Glory!) (Al-Israa' 17: 44)

3- The environment contains Allah's creatures which the Muslim scholars consider to also deserve protection.

4- Also among the reasons why Islam seeks to protect and preserve the environment is that Islam, as a way of life, is established on the concept of good (khayr). Therefore it is expected that Islam will protect the environment once it is understood that such protection is good by itself. The Qur'an states: (He whoso do good an atom's weight will see it. And whoso do ill an atom's weight will see it.) (Az-Zalzalah 99: 7-8)

In Islam, humans are expected to protect the environment since no other creature is able to perform this task. Humans are the only being that Allah has "entrusted" with the responsibility of looking after the earth. This trusteeship is seen by Islam to be so onerous and burdensome that no other creature would 'accept' it. Allah says: (Lo! We offered the trust unto the heavens and the earth and the hills, but they shrank from bearing it and were afraid of it and man assumed it Lo! he is a tyrant and fool.) (Al-Ahzab 33: 72)

In Islam the relationship between humankind and the environment is part of social existence, an existence based on the fact that everything on earth worships the same God. This worship is not merely ritual practice, since rituals are simply the symbolic human manifestation of submission to Allah. The actual devotions are actions, which can be practiced by all the creatures of earth sharing the planet with the human race. Moreover humans are responsible for the welfare and sustenance of the other citizens of this global environment. The Qur'an contains many verses that can be referred to for guidance in this respect. The following verse 21 of the second surah of the Qur'an, is one example:

(O people! Worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that you may ward off (evil). Who hath appointed the earth a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and causeth water to pour down from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah when ye know (better).) (Al-Baqarah 2: 21-22)

The word in this verse which is translated as "may ward off evil" is in Arabic tattaqun. It enjoins piety and awareness which is accompanied by an appreciation of the surrounding environment. In this verse, the Qur'an speaks directly to all groups of people, whether believers, or not. It attempts to mobilize people to the importance of "worshipping Allah" as a symbol and a way of life that enjoins justice and equity in handling the system created by Him.

This system has been placed under human responsibility, to be cared for and not misused as can be concluded by returning to verse 22 ofsurat al-Baqarah. The word lakum (for you) in the phrase "created for you" contains the message that the earth is not for one generation but for every generation, past, present and future and that would include humans as well as other creatures on this earth. Accordingly, rivers, minerals are the property of all. This should be distributed fairly and justly especially when it happens to be owned collectively like the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates

 Pollution is one form of corruption ("fasal" in Arabic) mentioned in the Glorious Quran eight times. Counting the derivations of the word "fasal" mentioned elsewhere in the Quran raises the number to 49. "Fasal" involves physical corruption like disrupting the environmental phenomena and the contents of the universe (water, soil, food) by foolish human interference in the natural balance created by Allah the Almighty, Who did so wisely, perfectly and infallibly to fit the life of all creatures.

Water pollution in general means polluting water streams, wells, rivers, seas, rain and underground water in such a way that makes it unfit for man, animals, plants, or the sea and ocean creatures. Air pollution involves the discharge of gases, smoke and fumes (the solid, liquid and gaseous forms of matter) into the air surrounding living creatures, and the change of its natural composition. This leads ultimately to the unsuitability of the habitat, contrary to what Allah willed for His creatures. Physiological, economic and biological damages are, in fact, devastating to man, animals, plants and other creatures. 
The corrupters of the earth, whether those who deny God, practice injustice or go against the universal laws, are referred to by the following Quranic verses.
"There is the type of man whose speech about this world's life may dazzle thee, and he calls The God (Allah) to witness about what is in his heart: yet is he the most contentious of enemies? When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and cattle. But Allah loves not mischief" (Al-Baqarah: verses 204 and 205)
An incidence occurred prior to these verses being revealed. A man named Al-Akhnas Ibn Shuriq came to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to embrace Islam, but as he turned to leave, he happened to pass by a pasture and grazing animals. He set it alight and killed the cattle. The verses were sent down as a sign of Divine disapproval.
This incident recurs over history on a wider scale involving millions of people throughout the earth. The natural wealth deposited by Allah for the benefit of mankind has been spoiled. Selfishness and aggression has overcome mankind, as they have become corrupters of earth, the surrounding atmosphere and neighboring outer space.

Friday, September 19, 2008


The MBBR is a biological aerobic degradation of organic pollutants. The process utilizes millions of tiny, polyethylene biofilm elements that provide a high surface area as a home for a vast, highly active bacteria culture. This fixed film process features a flexible reactor design, the ability to handle load increases without the need for extra tankage, and remains stable under large load variations, including temperature, strength or pH. Like the activated sludge process, the MBBR process utilizes the whole volume of an open tank. Unlike an activated sludge reactor, it does not require sludge return to operate effectively. In MBBR , addition of media quantity and Air Quantity is the Key Factor.
The original wastewater treatment system consisted of a chemical pre-treatment system, followed by an anaerobic system, which in turn was followed by an activated sludge process. with high chemical and operating costs

MBBR system replaced the chemical pre-treatment system. MBBRs were installed between the equalization tank (EQ) and the activated sludge system. Total reactor volume of the MBBRs is designed for different hydraulic retention time for different types of waste water at average flows and than checked against peak flows. Essentially nutrient levels and DO levels are the only control points for the system.

Effluent from the MBBR is sent to a dissolved air flotation unit, which removes 70-90% of the solids generated, prior to being discharged to the activated sludge system.

The MBBR reactors reduced the incoming organic load from an average soluble BOD by 50-70% . This reduction allowed the activated sludge process to treat the ammonia-nitrogen within the wastewater in a more efficient and effective manner, allowing a higher volume of treated water to be discharged to drain.

The initial MBBR biofilm unit process shaves the loadings peaks and any toxic inhibition effects while removing 50 to 70 percent of the incoming BOD. This pretreatment achieves 2 to 3 times increased capacity compared to a traditional activated sludge process while also being more compact. Furthermore, the MBBR process improves activated sludge characteristics making the activated sludge stage more inherently stable with a waste sludge that is easier to dewater.

The elements provide a large protected surface area for the biofilm and optimal conditions for the bacteria culture to grow and thrive.
The biofilm that is created around each carrier element protects the bacterial cultures from operating excursions to yield a very robust
system for those industrial facilities loaded with process fluctuations. The biofilm also provides a more stable "home" for the bacteria
to grow, so there is less space required compared to other biological systems and far less controls.
An MBBR can be designed for a new facility to remove BOD/COD from wastewater streams or for nitrogen removal.
Existing activated sludge plants can be upgraded to achieve nitrogen and phosphorus removal or higher BOD/COD capacity .


  • Stable Under Load Variations
  • Insensitive to Temporary Limitation
  • Consistent Treatment Results
  • Flexible
    • Customizable Reactor Shapes
    • Utilization of Existing Tanks
    • Upgrade Existing Plants
    • Efficient
      • Low Solids Generation
      • Low or No Polymer Required for
      • Liquid/Solids Separation

      • Trouble-Free

        • Easy to Operate
        • No Media Clogging
        • No Sludge Return


        • Small Footprint
        • Low Capital Cost


        • Media Retention
        • To retain the media within the reator, a stainless steel wedgewire sieve is used. The vigorous action of the moving
      • bed continually scours the surface of the sieve eliminating the need for any maintenance.

        • Aeration Grid
        • A stainless steel grid mounted at the bottom of the reactor is engineered with perforations. The grid is connected to high efficiency
        blowers.. The aeration grid produces a medium bubble which provides the necessary mixing and maintains the dissolved oxygen
        to ~3 ppm.

        The bacterial cultures digest the soluble organics, gradually mature, and slough from the media. The cultures form a natural floc
        which can be easily separated from the water with the DAF unit. In this case and others, no chemical coagulant or polymer were
        necessary to achieve < 10 ppm TSS and over 90% BOD removal.

        Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
        Mobile : 9899300371
        311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025


        RO Plant Start-Up

        On start up, the inlet valve should open prior to the initiation of the high-pressure pump, to completely fill the system with low pressure water (<100 psi [< 7 Bars]). This "soft start" will prevent hydraulic shock at start-up. Pre-treatment chemical addition should begin at this time (making sure the chemicals are not over-injected). The high-pressure pump should then be started and the system slowly bought on-line, up to design permeate flow.

        If starting up after a period of shutdown, flush the permeate to drain for 30 minutes to remove residual preservation chemicals. Produced water permeate can be used when it meets the quality requirement of downstream processes.

        Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
        Mobile : 9899300371
        311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025

        Sunday, September 14, 2008

        homeopthaic remedy for bed wetting in children

        please look at:

        determinatin of optimum alum dose

        The main difficulty is to determine the optimum coagulant dosage related
        to the influent of raw water. Excessive coagulant overdosing leads to increased treatment costs and public health concerns, while underdosing leads to a failure to meet the water quality targets and less efficient
        operation of the water treatment plant.
        Manual methods mainly include jar testing
        Jar testing involves taking a raw water sample and applying different quantities of coagulant to each sample. After a short period of time each sample is assessed for water quality and the dosage that produces the optimal result is used as a set point.
        Operators change the dose and make a new jar test if the quality of treated water changes.


        To conduct jar test on a natural surface water in order to estimate an optimum dosage of aluminum sulfate or ferric sulfate for the removal of suspended matter , To observe the rate of floc formation and sedimentation.
        The dose of coagulant which gives the best floc is the optimum dose of coagulants.


        1. Collect 20 to 50 liters of a natural surface water. Analyze the water for pH, turbidity, color after filtration, and alkalinity.
        2. Alternatively, make up a synthetic water sample for testing. Record both the water temperature and ambient air temperature.
        3. Calculate the amount of alkalinity required to react with the maximum dosage of aluminum or ferric sulfate. If necessary, augment the natural alkalinity by the addition of 0.1 N Na2CO3 so that the alkalinity will be at least 0.5 meq/l (25 mg/l as CaCO3).
        4. Measure exact 1 liter of water into each jar test reactor. Prepare portions of the aluminum or ferric sulfate solution which will yield 10 to 50 mg/l as Al2O3 or Fe2O3 when added to the sample aliquots.
        5. Mix at 50 rpm to ensure water is completely mixed.
        6. Measure chemical volumes to achieve desired dose in each reactor.
        7. Increase mixing speed to 250 rpm. Add the chemicals to each reactor near the vortex. All reactor should be dosed at the same time.
        8. Rapid mix for 1 min.
        9. Reduce mixing to 60 rpm for 9 min.; Observe the reactors at 3 min. intervals to detect the formation of flocs. Reduce mixing to 25 rpm for 4 min.; Reduce mixing to 10 rpm for 2 min.
        10. Turn off mixers and allow particles to settle for 20 min.
          Measure the turbidity or color, alkalinity, and pH of the liquid in each jar by sampling at the top, taking care not to disturb the sediment in sampling. Measure the depth of sludge in the beaker.
        B DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM pH Repeat the jar test of Part A using the observed optimum dosage of ferric sulfate but adjusting sample pH to 6, 7, 8, and 9 with NaOH or H2SO4 prior to adding coagulant.
        Measure final pH, turbidity or color of the supernatant of each sample. Measure the depth of sludge in the beaker.
        Plot turbidity or color versus pH.



        Prepare identical (optimum) coagulant dosages for all six beakers.
        Use the same rapid mix as before but vary the time of slow mix at 30 rpm. Use 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 minutes for the six jars respectively. Terminate mixing by carefully lifting the paddle from the beaker at appropriate time.
        Allow 30 minutes for settling.
        Measure the color or turbidity and pH of the supernatant in each beaker.



        Jar test apparatus and beakers
        Magnetic stirrer plus magnetic stirring bars
        Spectrophotometer or color comparator
        pH meter
        Assorted measurement pipettes (1, 5, 10 ml) and volumetric pipettes to 50 ml
        Glass or plastic funnels
        Ringstands and rings



        Aluminum sulfate solution, 1 g/l or ferric sulfate solution, 1 g/l
        H2SO4, 2 liters each, 5 x 10-2 M, 10-2 M
        NaOH,, 1 liter, 10-1 M
        Sodium carbonate, 1 liter each, 5 x 10-2 M, 10-2 M
        Indicators: methyl orange, phenolphthalein
        Synthetic water sample: Add suspended matter with a kaolin, montmorillonite, illite, or bentonite clay and/or the color with extract from boiled leaves or with instant coffee to raw water. Turbidity might be increased to about 40 turbidity units and color to about 80 color units (Clay suspension sample should be mixed for 3 days).
        Buffer solution
        Whatman #1 filter paper


        Prepare tables which facilitate comparisons of coagulant dosages with alkalinity, pH, color, turbidity, and other changes observed. Plot the inverse of turbidity and color versus coagulant dosage as part of the analysis. Plot turbidity versus coagulant dose at different settling times to determine the influence of floc formation and settling characteristics on the selection of coagulant dosage.
        Comment on the differences between coagulation with iron and aluminum salts. Define the pH ranges over which each salt should result in effective coagulation.
        Determine the rate of aggregation for a particular coagulant dose and pH by plotting the reciprocal of the turbidity versus time. (This would represent a second order reaction with respect to turbidity). Also plot the natural log of the reciprocal turbidity (representing a first order reaction) versus time. Determine which gives the best straight line fit of the data and determine the slope.
        HAND BOOK : ( From ENVO's Practical Experience of Last Ten Years )


        PH value


        Aluminium Sulphate(ALUM)


        70-85 mg/ liter

        Ferric Sulphate


        35 mg/liter

        Ferric Chloride (Used in STP/ETP)


        28-35 mg/liter

        Ferrous Sulphate(Used in ETP)


        35-70 mg/liter

        Saleem Asraf Syed Imdaadullah
        Mobile : 9899300371
        311/22,Zakir Nagar,New Delhi-110025