Sunday, February 26, 2006


Great leaders do not do big things, they do simple things brillianltly

Thursday, February 23, 2006

reply= Queries regarding careers

> Sir,
> Thanks for your letter. I will be happy if we can work together.
> As mentioned in the blog, We are in the process of finalising our branch
> offices in various parts of India. Please let us know what you can do for
> our company. WE believe in working together for mutual benifits.Team work
> always succeeds.We dont offer jobs or pay salaries. We give oppurtunities
> qualified persons like you who is keen to suceed in life. We provide all
> back up from Delhi.You can be very sure of our full support.If you want
> can come to Delhi and meet us in person.
> NOW, its all upto you.
> Thanks again for your letter.
> ---Saleem
> 9899300371


> Sent: Wednesday, February 22, 2006 7:00 PM
> Subject: Queries regarding careers
> > Dear Sir,
> > This is in reference to Blogger website I visited today.
> > I am having M.Sc. in Forestry & Environmental Sciences and four and half
> > years of experience in research.
> > Herewith I am attaching my CV for your kind consideration for the
> > position and advice.
> >
> > With kind regards,
> >
> > Himanshu Mishra
> >

Sunday, February 19, 2006

work methods

dear sir,
sorry for the late reply. I was out of office for a few days. we already expanded our work to Uttar Pradesh and ASSAM. I had to go to lucknow, Aligarh and Guwahati for finalising some new projects. Our Regional Head At UP is Mr. Goswami --Phone no: 09415104692 and at Assam is Mr.S . Ahmad ,Phone No: 09435109929. Now let me please tell you what they are doing .
1. They generate enquiries. Enquiries are normally generated from officials of Regional Pollution Control Board,Water Supply Departments, Ground WAter Aurthority, Municipalties,Directorate of Health,Public Health Engineering Department, Architects, Builder Groups etc. Their primary task is to liasion with these sources of work and generate enquiries.
2. Generally the enquiry is a Industry,hotel, hospital, Nursing home,School,Vehicle servicing centre & petrol pumps, group housing societies,banquet halls etc where Sewage treatment plant,Effluent Treatment Plant,Drinking Water TReatment Plant is required.
3.They visit the client and gather information from the site like a)Water test report of the sewage,effluent,potable water b)Location plan of the proposed treatment plant site,c)Production process details showing sources of waste generation,d)Quantity of waste generation  per day and e)Working hours during which the total quantum of waste is generated.
3. They send the above details to us through email , FAX .
4.We prepare a quotation and send it to them .
5.They submit the quotation to the client.
6.They negotiate the quotation with the party and finalise the deal.
7.They take an advance amount alongwith the work order.
8.WE send them the drawings of civil work like layout plan, Level flow diagram, sectional drawings etc.
9.We dont do civil work.Either they or the client himself do the civil work.Hence they finalisea civil contractor and inform us accordingly.
10.NOW, We plan a first visit to the site along with them and fix the layout at site.Necessary onsite modifications to the layout is made and a final layout is prepared by us.
11.They followup the work and time to time take payments from the client as decided.
12.They also liasion with the local authorities for all necessary permissions like No Objection Certificate (NOC) etc.
13.We supply all mechanical items from Delhi.Also we Install them at site.We send our staff from Delhi to Erect and commission the plant.After first run the plant is handed over to the client and a completion certificate is obtained.
This is in short the method of working.

So, your work will also be the same---that of generating enquiries from the sources I mentioned ,Liasioning with the concerned departments,Gathering data for design of the STP/ETP,Civil Work(If you wish to do),

Please let me know what you can do.And how you plan to generate enquiries
Thanking you.
Saleem Asraf

Monday, February 13, 2006

Re: Great Poem- must read

----- Original Message -----
From: Shakil A
Sent: Monday, February 13, 2006 10:00 AM
Subject: Great Poem- must read

Death Bed

It was early in the morning at four,
When death knocked upon a bedroom door,

Who is there? The sleeping one cried.
I'm Malakul Mawt, let me inside.

At once, the man began to shiver,
As one sweating in deadly fever,

He shouted to his sleeping wife,
Don't let him take away my life.

Please go away, O Angel of Death!
Leave me alone; I'm not ready yet.

My family on me depends,
Give me a chance, O please prepense!

The angel knocked again and again,
Friend! I'll take your life without a pain,

This your soul Allah requires,
I come not with my own desire.

Bewildered, the man began to cry,
O Angel I'm so afraid to die,

I'll give you gold and be your slave,
Don't send me to the unlit grave.

Let me in, O Friend! The Angel said,
Open the door; get up from your bed,

If you do not allow me in,
I will walk through it, like a Jinn.

The man held a gun in his right hand,
Ready to defy the Angel's stand.

I'll point my gun, towards your head,
You dare come in; I'll shoot you dead.

By now the Angel was in the room,
Saying, O Friend! Prepare for you doom.

Foolish man, Angels never die,
Put down your gun and do not sigh.

Why are you afraid! Tell me O man,
To die according to Allah's plan?

Come smile at me, do not be grim,
Be Happy to return to Him.

O Angel! I bow my head in shame,
I had no time to take Allah's Name.

From morning till dusk, I made my wealth,
Not even caring for my health.

Allah's command I never obeyed,
Nor five times a day I ever prayed.

A Ramadan came and a Ramadan went,
But no time had I to repent.


 The Hajj was already FARD on me,
But I would not part with my money.

All charities I did ignore,
Taking usury more and more.

O Angel! I appeal to you,
Spare my life for a year or two.

The Laws of Quran I will obey,
I'll begin SALAT this very day.

My Fast and Hajj, I will complete,
And keep away from self-conceit.

I will refrain from usury,
And give all my wealth to charity,

We Angels do what Allah demands,
We cannot go against His commands.

Death is ordained for everyone,
Father, mother, daughter or son.

I'm afraid this moment is your last,
Now be reminded, of your past,

I do understand your fears,
But it is now too late for tears.

You lived in this world, two score and more,
Never did you, your people adore.

Your parents, you did not obey,
Hungry beggars, you turned away.

Instead of making more Muslims,
You made your children non-Muslims.

You ignored the Mua'dhin Adhaan,
Nor did you read the Holy Quran.

Breaking promises all your life,
Backbiting friends, and causing strife.

From hoarded goods, great profits you made,
And your poor workers, you underpaid.

Horses and cards were your leisure,
Moneymaking was your pleasure.

You ate vitamins and grew more fat,
With the very sick, you never sat.

A pint of blood you never gave,
Which could a little baby save?

O Human, you have done enough wrong,
You bought good properties for a song.

When the farmers appealed to you,
You did not have mercy, tis true.

Paradise for you? I cannot tell,
Undoubtedly you will dwell in hell.

There is no time for you to repent,
I'll take your soul for which I am sent.

The ending however, is very sad,
Eventually the man became mad

With a cry, he jumped out of bed,
And suddenly, he fell down dead.

O Reader! Take moral from here,
You never know, your end may be near

Change your living and make amends
For heaven, on your deeds depends.

If this poem inspires you,
It can help someone too.


how to become rich

Summary of the Science of Getting Rich

THERE is a thinking stuff from which all things are made, and which, in its original state, permeates, penetrates, and fills the interspaces of the universe.

A thought in this substance produces the thing that is imaged by the thought.

Man can form things in his thought, and by impressing his thought upon formless substance can cause the thing he thinks about to be created.

In order to do this, man must pass from the competitive to the creative mind; otherwise he cannot be in harmony with the Formless Intelligence, which is always creative and never competitive in spirit.

Man may come into full harmony with the Formless Substance by entertaining a lively and sincere gratitude for the blessings it bestows upon him. Gratitude unifies the mind of man with the intelligence of Substance, so that man's thoughts are received by the Formless. Man can remain upon the creative plane only by uniting himself with the Formless Intelligence through a deep and continuous feeling of gratitude.

Man must form a clear and definite mental image of the things he wishes to have, to do, or to become; and he must hold this mental image in his thoughts, while being deeply grateful to the Supreme that all his desires are granted to him. The man who wishes to get rich must spend his leisure hours in contemplating his Vision, and in earnest thanksgiving that the reality is being given to him. Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of frequent contemplation of the mental image, coupled with unwavering faith and devout gratitude. This is the process by which the impression is given to the Formless, and the creative forces set in motion.

The creative energy works through the established channels of natural growth, and of the industrial and social order. All that is included in his mental image will surely be brought to the man who follows the instructions given above, and whose faith does not waver. What he wants will come to him through the ways of established trade and commerce.

In order to receive his own when it shall come to him, man must be active; and this activity can only consist in more than filling his present place. He must keep in mind the Purpose to get rich through the realization of his mental image. And he must do, every day, all that can be done that day, taking care to do each act in a successful manner. He must give to every man a use value in excess of the cash value he receives, so that each transaction makes for more life; and he must so hold the Advancing Thought that the impression of increase will be communicated to all with whom he comes in contact.

The men and women who practice the foregoing instructions will certainly get rich; and the riches they receive will be in exact proportion to the definiteness of their vision, the fixity of their purpose, the steadiness of their faith, and the depth of their gratitude.

Sunday, February 12, 2006

methane gas generation

Methane Generation From Livestock Wastes

by R.W. Hansen 1

Quick Facts...

  • Anaerobic fermentation or digestion is the most promising process for converting organic materials to methane and other gases.
  • A simple apparatus can be constructed to produce bio-gas.
  • Bio-gas usually contains about 60 to 70 percent methane, 30 to 40 percent carbon dioxide, and other gases.
  • The heat value of raw bio-gas is approximately half that of natural gas under typical Colorado conditions.
  • Take precautions when processing and handling the gas. It is highly explosive and difficult to detect.

Energy conservation, coupled with concern for the management of livestock wastes, has revived an interest in generating methane from livestock manures.

Converting organic materials, such as animal wastes, to an easily used form of energy can be accomplished by several methods. The process with the greatest potential is anaerobic fermentation or digestion.

The extraction of energy from wastes using anaerobic digestion to produce bio-gas is not new and the general technology is well known. Bio-gas, which is methane and other gases, has been known as swamp gas, sewer gas and fuel gas. Sewage treatment plants generate bio-gas from the sewage sludge as part of the sewage treatment processes. Many small units were used in Europe and India after World War II.

Characteristics of Bio-Gas

Bio-gas usually contains about 60 to 70 percent methane, 30 to 40 percent carbon dioxide, and other gases, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and other noxious gases. It also is saturated with water vapor.

The heat value of the raw gas at typical Colorado atmospheric pressures is about 400 to 600 British thermal units (Btu) per cubic foot. In comparison, natural gas has a heat value of 850 Btu per cubic foot and gasoline contains approximately 120,000 Btu per gallon. Partial removal of the impurities may be required. This is not necessarily difficult, but it does complicate the system.

Basic Digester Process

Methane is produced by bacteria. The bacteria are anaerobes and operate only in anaerobic environments (no free oxygen). Constant temperature, pH and fresh organic matter promote maximum methane production. Temperatures usually are maintained at approximately 95 degrees F. Other temperatures can be used if held constant. For each 20 degrees F decrease, gas production will be cut approximately one half or will take twice as long. A constant temperature is critical. Temperature variations of as little as 5 degrees F can inhibit the methane-formers enough to cause acid accumulation and possible digester failure.

Anaerobic digestion is a two-part process and each part is performed by a specific group of organisms. The first part is the breakdown of complex organic matter (manure) into simple organic compounds by acid-forming bacteria. The second group of microorganisms, the methane-formers, break down the acids into methane and carbon dioxide. In a properly functioning digester, the two groups of bacteria must balance so that the methane-formers use just the acids produced by the acid-formers.

A simple apparatus can produce bio-gas. The amount of the gas and the reliability desired have a great influence on the cost and complexity of the system. A simple batch-loaded digester requires an oxygen-free container, relatively constant temperature, a means of collecting gas, and some mixing. Because methane gas is explosive, appropriate safety precautions are needed.

Tank size is controlled by the number, size and type of animals served, dilution water added, and detention time. The factor that can be most easily changed with regard to tank size is detention time. Ten days is the minimum, but a longer period can be used. The longer the detention time, the larger the tank must be. Longer detention times allow more complete decomposition of the wastes. Fifteen days is a frequently used detention time. Table 1 shows some recommended sizes, dilution ratios and loading rates for different types of animals.

Little volume reduction occurs in an anaerobic digester. Waste fed into the digester will be more than 90 to 95 percent water. The only part that can be reduced is a portion of the solids (about 50 to 60 percent).

The processed material will have less odor. Because it still contains most of the original nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and is still highly polluted, the waste cannot enter a stream after it leaves the digester. Lagoons are commonly used to hold the waste until it can be disposed of by either hauling or pumping onto agricultural land.

Table 1: Loading rate guidelines for heated, mixed anaerobic digesters at 95 degrees F being fed fresh livestock manures.*
Factor Swine
Dairy Beef under 700 lbs Poultry layer Poultry
Dilution ratio manure (manure to water) 1:2.9 Undiluted 1:2.5 1:8.3 1:10.2
Estimated dilution water (gal water/1,000 lbs body wgt)** 15 0 11 47 79
Hydraulic detention time (days) 12.5 17.5 12.5 10 10
Loading rate (lbs volatile solids/cubic foot/day)** 0.14 0.37 0.37 0.13 0.1
Digester volume (cubic feet/1,000 lbs animal wgt)** 30 24 14 72 120
*(From R.J. Smith, The Anaerobic Digestion of Livestock Wastes and the Prospects for Methane Production, Midwest Livestock Waste Management Conference, ISU, Ames, Iowa, Nov. 27-29, 1973)
**To convert to metrics use the following equivalents: 1 gal = 3.8 l; 1 lb = .45 kg; 1 cu ft = .03 cu m.

The volume of effluent actually may be greater than the volume of manure prior to digestion. This increase is due to the dilution water added to liquefy the manure to the desired solid content for the digester.

There is no increase in the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium in this material, although it may be in a more available form. A small portion of the nitrogen may be lost to the gas portion of the system, thus reducing the amount of nitrogen initially available.

Gas Production

Total bio-gas production varies depending on the organic material digested, the digester loading rate, and the environmental conditions in the digester. Under ideal conditions (95 degrees F temperature and proper pH), it is possible to produce about 45 cubic feet of gas at atmospheric pressure from one day's manure from a 1,000 pound cow. Not all of the bio-gas energy is available for use. Energy is required to heat and mix the digester, pump the effluent, and perhaps compress the gas. Table 2 summarizes the estimated gas production from various animal wastes.

Table 2: Bio-gas production (60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide) from animal wastes per 1,000 pounds body weight.
Animal Volatile solids (lb per animal per day) Probable volatile solids destruction (percent)1 Gas (cu ft per day) Btu (per day)2
Beef 5.9 45 30 18,000
Dairy 8.6 48 44 26,000
9.4 60 72 43,000
12.0 60 92 55,000
4.8 50 29 17,400
1Percent destruction of volatile solids varies depending primarily on detention time and digester temperature.
2Calculated at 600 Btu/ft3* (heat content varies depending on quality of gas). For comparison, some other heating values are: gasoline, 124,000 Btu/gal; diesel fuel, 133,000 Btu/gal; natural gas, 850 to 1,000 Btu/ft3; propane, 92,000 Btu/gal.
*To convert to metrics, use the following equivalents:
1 lb = .45 kg; 1 cu ft = .03 cu m; 1 gal = 3.8 1.

Basic Elements

Figure 1 shows the basic elements of a single-stage anaerobic digester. Submerged inflow and outflow lines are needed to prevent gas from escaping. Either a mechanical mixer can be used, or the liquid or gas can be recirculated for mixing.

A heat exchanger and thermostat maintain the proper temperature. The heat exchanger can be either internal or external.

Methane is drawn off the top of the digester. For gas utilization, a compressor and storage tank are used, along with the hardware to provide flame traps, regulators, pressure gauges, hydrogen sulfide scrubber, carbon dioxide removal and pressure relief valves. A common facility for gas storage is the floating cover that floats upward while maintaining essentially constant pressure.

Methane or bio-gas cannot be converted to a liquid under normal temperatures as can LP gas (LP gas liquefies at 160 psi). Under constant temperature, volume reduction is inversely proportional to the pressure; that is, as the pressure doubles, the volume becomes half as large. The more the gas is compressed, the more energy it takes to compress it.

Basic components of anaerobic digester
Figure 1: Basic components of anaerobic digester.

Liquefaction of methane requires pressures of nearly 5,000 psi and is not practical. If the gas is compressed to just 1,000 psi, it requires about 1,320 Btu of energy to put 6,350 Btu into a storage container.

Because bio-gas cannot be liquefied, it is best suited for stationary uses, such as cooking, heating water and buildings, air conditioning, grain drying, or operating stationary engines. It is not feasible as a tractor fuel. One cubic foot of compressed bio-gas at 3,000 psi would run a 100-horsepower tractor approximately 7 1/2 minutes. Most tractor fuel tanks occupy about 8 cubic feet. A special high-pressure tank with 8 cubic feet of gas and 3,000 psi would run the tractor approximately one hour. A 3,000-psi tank bouncing around on a tractor would present a serious safety hazard. The tractor would run 6 minutes on 8 cubic feet of gas compressed to 300 psi, a more realistic pressure.

A well-insulated, three-bedroom home takes about 900,000 Btu per day for heating during cold weather. Because 50 percent of the bio-gas goes back into maintaining the necessary temperature of the digester, it would take the manure from 50 cows to produce enough bio-gas each day for home heating.

Bio-gas is produced on a relatively constant basis. Most applications are somewhat intermittent; therefore, storage is required. The amount of storage depends on the storage time and pressure. High demand applications, such as grain drying, normally are impractical due to the excessive storage capacity required.


Methane in a concentration of 6 to 15 percent with air is an explosive mixture. Since it is lighter than air, it will collect in rooftops and other enclosed areas. It is relatively odorless and detection may be difficult. Extreme caution and special safety features are necessary in the digester design and storage tank, especially if the gas is compressed.


Concerns for energy conservation, environmental pollution, and the fact that agricultural organic wastes account for a major portion of our waste materials, has created renewed interest in the processing of these wastes for energy recovery.

Of the several types of energy capturing processes available, anaerobic digestion appears to be the most feasible for the majority of agricultural operations. Anaerobic digestion can stabilize most agricultural wastes while producing bio-gas or methane gas. This concept has been extensively applied in Europe and India during energy shortages. Similar equipment has been used for gas production with domestic wastes.

Primarily, disadvantages are the amount of management required due to the sensitivity of the digesters, the high initial investment required for equipment, and the fact that the wastes still must be disposed of after digestion.

Research is in progress to make the process more practical for energy production. Bacteriologists are investigating new strains of bacteria and culturing techniques for producing methane. Engineers are investigating digester designs and operation to reduce construction and operational requirements and costs.

1 R.W. Hansen, former Colorado State University Cooperative Extension specialist and associate professor. 9/92. Reviewed 1/03 by L.R. Walker, Cooperative Extension specialist, chemical and bioresource engineering.

Wednesday, February 01, 2006

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