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Wednesday, November 30, 2005

http://www.teriin.org/energy/waste.htm

http://www.teriin.org/energy/waste.htm
Magnitude of waste and potential for energy recovery
Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations across the globe. The daily per capita solid waste generated in India ranges from about 100 g in small towns to 500 g in large towns. It takes anywhere between three and seven days for the waste to be disposed from the time of its generation. Major portion of the collected waste is dumped in landfill sites. The recyclable content of waste ranges from about 13% to 20%. In a developing country like India, paper, plastic, glass, rubber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals – all the material that can be recycled are salvaged from this waste to produce low-cost products extensively used by the lower-income groups of the society. However, data collected from 44 Indian cities have revealed that about 70% of them do not have adequate capacity for collection and transportation of MSW (municipal solid waste) (Pachauri and Sridharan 1998). The uncollected waste that usually finds its way in sewers is eaten by the cattle, or left to rot in the open, or burnt on roadsides.
In the face of burgeoning urban populations and growing mounds of garbage, initiatives like converting garbage into energy could show the way for cities. A private company has begun converting the city's garbage into fuel pellets and now plans to establish a 10 MW power plant. According to TIFAC (Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council), Delhi, Mumbai, and Calcutta would be generating 5000 tonnes of garbage every day, in about a decade, and disposal would be difficult. The existing dumping years would create enormous pollution and health hazards. Municipal authorities would find it expensive to transport garbage and dispose it of scientifically, according to a TIFAC data sheet on 'Fuel pellets from municipal waste'. As part of a pilot project for integrated waste management, the Department of Science and Technology had established a prototype fuel pelletization plant at Deonar, Mumbai, in the early 1990s. The plant was designed to process Indian garbage. The garbage was first dried to bring down the high moisture levels. Sand, grit, and other incombustible matter were then mechanically separated before the garbage was compacted and converted into pellets. Fuel pellets have several distinct advantages over coal and wood, according to the TIFAC data sheet. It is cleaner, free from incombustibles, has lower ash and moisture contents, is of uniform size, cost-effective, and eco-friendly (The Hindu, 2 May 2000).
In addition to MSW, large quantity of waste, in both solid and liquid forms, is generated by the industrial sector like breweries, sugar mills, distilleries, food-processing industries, tanneries, and paper and pulp industries. Out of the total pollution contributed by industrial subsectors, 40% to 45% of the total pollutants can be traced to the processing of industrial chemicals and nearly 40% of the total organic pollution to the food products industry alone. Food products and agro-based industries together contribute 65% to 70% of the total industrial waste water in terms of organic load (Pachauri and Sridharan 1998a). Table 1 gives an estimate of waste generated in India by various sectors and industries.
Table 1 Estimated quantity of waste generated in India
Waste
Quantity
Municipal solid waste
27.4 million tonnes/year
Municipal liquid waste (121 class I and II cities)
12145 million litres/day
Distillery (243 nos)
8057 kilo litres/day
Pressmud
9 million tonnes/year
Food and fruit processing waste
4.5 million tonnes/year
Willow dust
30000 tonnes/year
Dairy industry waste (COD level 2 kg/m3)
50–60 million litres/day
Paper and pulp industry waste (300 mills)
1600 m3 waste water/day
Tannery (2000 nos)
52500 m3 waste water/day
Source Bakthavatsalam (1999)
In addition, the daily per capita sewage generation is about 150 litres. The total sewage generated in India, about 5 billion litres/day in 1947, grew to 30 billion litres/day in 1997. However, the total treatment capacity available is only about 10% of this quantum generated. It is estimated that under the Ganga Action Plan, 46 000 Nm3 (normal cubic metre) of biogas can be produced daily from the sewage treatment plants in 21 Indian cities by treating about 339 million litres/day of municipal waste water. This, with appropriate biogas power plants, will generate total electrical energy of 99 450 kWh/day (Singh 1996).
The urban municipal waste (both solid and liquid) – industrial waste coming from dairies, distilleries, pressmud, tanneries, pulp and paper, and food processing industries, etc., agro waste and biomass in different forms – if treated properly, has a tremendous potential for energy generation as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Estimated renewable energy potential in India
Energy source
Estimated potential
Bio energy
17000 MW
Draught animal power
30000 MW
Energy from MSW
1000 MW
Biogas plants
12 million plants
Source Bakthavatsalam (1999)
Options for waste management
Last year, the INSWAREB (Institute of Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance) came up with the theory that rice husk, a cheap by-product of paddy milling, has the potential to galvanize the electricity-starved rural India. With a gross calorific value of 3000 kcal/kg, rice husk, capable of high-efficiency combustion, could serve as the fuel for mini power plants of 1 to 2 MW capacity that can be set up in rural areas. The RHA (rice husk ash), obtained as a by-product by burning it, can generate power in the process.
The cost of establishing and maintaining the mini power plant can be easily made good by exporting RHA, which can fetch $50 a tonne. INSWAREB has drawn an action plan for promoting RHA fully exploiting its export potential. It proposes to initiate a couple of mini power plants to popularize the theme. (The Hindu, 9 February 1999).
Similarly, at an inter-ministerial meeting involving the ministries of power, environment and forests, and urban affairs and employment, it was decided to encourage the use of fly ash bricks in all construction activities. The NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) had thought of setting up two fly ash brick manufacturing plants at Badarpur and Dadri near Delhi; the theory being that fly ash, apart from being used as a substitute for bricks, could also be utilized for the embankment of roads.
The enormous amount of ash generated in Indian thermal power stations poses a serious threat to the environment. In principle, this problem can be tackled by using fly ash in building construction. Increased awareness and use of fly ash bricks, which is stronger (100 kg/cm2 compared to 50–75 kg/cm2 of conventional bricks) and smoother on the sides (reducing plastering costs significantly), can provide an eco-friendly solution. Fly ash bricks are better than traditional bricks in the sense also that ash bricks do not use the top fertile soil of the earth, thus protecting the land from agricultural use. Located at the south-east corner of Delhi, the BTPS (Badarpur Thermal Power Station) meets more than 25% of the energy consumption of the capital. It also produces a staggering amount of ash every day (almost 5000 tonnes). The station has, however, been making concrete efforts in ash utilization as a responsible corporate citizen. It has given a major thrust in ash utilization through the manufacture of bricks from fly ash. At present, it has seven units given to private contractors, which manufacture around 16 000 bricks every day. The BTPS had installed a pilot-cum-demonstration plant at its ash dyke way back in 1993. The station adopted the FAL-G technology for the manufacture of ash bricks, which does not require firing or autoclaving. These bricks require natural drying and hence are totally energy-efficient and environment-friendly (The Financial Express, 4 April 1999).
It was also estimated that an energy-from-waste plant, which was to be set up in Scotland, would annually convert 120 000 tonnes of the city's municipal and commercial waste into electricity. It as also to deal with small amounts of non-hazardous clinical and liquid wastes. Besides generating adequate electricity for the plant's in-house needs of around 2.2 MW, it would sell 8.3 MW to the National Grid, electricity distribution network of UK. The facility incorporated two separate systems – fuel processing and combustion.
To produce the fuel, incoming waste is fed into one of the two hammer mills, where it is shredded into coarse floc material. Each of the mills handles 30 tonnes of waste an hour, almost double the plant's throughput of 15.6 tonnes an hour. The over-capacity allows for unplanned downtime. Magnets remove ferrous materials before the floc is carried by conveyor to a fuel-storage building capable of holding enough for two days’ operation—about 800 tonnes of refuse-derived fuel (The Hindu, 21 October 1999).

Role of the scientists
Scientists have developed a technique to treat foul-smelling polluted distillery wastes, using energy from the sun and a chemical catalyst. Tests on a small laboratory-type reactor showed that the method can detoxify 100 litres of diluted distillery waste water in five days. Results of the project at the NARI (Nimbkar Agriculture Research Institute) at Phaltan in Maharashtra were submitted to the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources). The scientists had applied for a patent on the chemical catalyst. The emphasis after this was to try to improve the technique so that waste treatment is over in just two days. The NARI scientists had taken cues from work on solar detoxification of ground-water and industrial wastes using titanium dioxide catalyst.
By purifying biogas produced from distillery wastes, scientists claimed to have generated huge quantities of com-pressed methane, a gas with immense potential as an alternative source of vehicle fuel. Experimenting with bulk distillery wastes from alcohol manufacturing breweries, researchers from the chemical engineering department of the Jadavpur University produced the gas by a process called biomethanation of the effluents. The process, which also cuts down on the environment pollution, has proved to be an eco-friendly energy production method (The Observer of Business and Politics 25 April 2000).

TERI shows the way
TERI—scientists has been developing new technologies to tackle the problem of waste management
TERI has developed a high-rate digester for fibrous and semi-solid municipal waste with the promise of revolutionizing the waste disposal industry. Described as TEAM (TERI Enhanced Acidification and Methanation) process, for which the patent has also been filed, the digester is said to be quick, economically viable, and suitable for food and agro-based industries and markets. In the face of evident environmental drawbacks of waste disposal methods like land-filling and incineration, the process of biomethanation of waste by anaerobic digestion has economical and social benefits apart from being environment-friendly (The Hindu, 18 March 2000).
TERI began work on the development of a high-rate digester for fibrous and semi-solid MSW in 1996. TEAM process is the culmination of these efforts. The salient features of TEAM are listed below.
Lowered retention time (7 days) and plant area for the whole process to make it economically viable as compared to conventional single phase reactors (30–40 days) or aerobic composting (3 to 6 months)
Complete elimination of engineering problems like scum formation, floating of feed leading to incomplete digestion, feed flow problem, etc.
Technology suitable for adoption by small entrepreneurs
Low water consumption because of reuse of the UASB reactor overflow to acidification reactor
Production of good quality biogas, which can be used for power generation or thermal application like cooking or production of process steam as per the needs,
The decrease in total volume of the feed stock after decomposition is more than 50%
The residue after drying is good organic manure.
Currently, a bench-scale plant for processing 50 kg of vegetable waste per day is operational at the Gual Pahari campus of TERI, at Gurgaon, and efforts are under way for upscaling.
The wastes generated by various sectors need to be assessed and evaluated for their energy potential or reuse in any other form. Biomethanation has emerged as the best option for the treatment of high organic content liquids for energy generation. The use of this technology to Indian MSW is still in its developmental stage. Once a commercially proven technology is established, it will go a long way in dealing with energy problems in the country.

SOFTWARE WASTE WATER

Professional Software
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations/Reporting
Industrial Pretreatment
Wastewater Operations Training
Wastewater Treatment Plant Modeling


Laboratory Information Management
Stream Modeling
Sewer Modeling / Design / Hydraulics
Other Software Listings
Below you will find descriptions and links for over 50 software programs used by professionals in the water pollution control field. I have personally used or tried only a few of them (Ops 32, Mineql, and Operator 10), and can provide no further information about the others beyond what you can find by following the links. Most of the descriptions are based on quotations from the web sites. I have tried to cover the major programs which have come to my attention. If you know of others that you feel should be included here, please let me know. I am also not actively updating prices or product upgrades, so if you find any inaccurate information, let me know about that also.
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations/Reporting
Name: Operator 10 Wastewater Data Management Source: Allmax Cost:: $4,200-- free demo "Operator 10® Plus Wastewater Management Monitoring and Report for Windows 3.1, 95, 98, and NT allows the entering and reporting of the plants laboratory analysis... Allows multiple facilities. Each facility may contain thousands of different sampling points while providing the ability to monitor thousands of parameters at each sampling point. The process setup section allows the user to define the treatment process in use at each facility, and where the sampling and flow measurement points are located. This allows Operator 10® Plus to calculate the loadings, removals and percent removals for each step of the treatment process and other treatment specific calculations such as F/M Ratio, MCRT, Volatile Reduction, etc. ...The DataView Application function allows the entering of daily, hourly and yearly data through the use of a spreadsheet type entry screen... Each user can enter, view, print, or export their own private Operator Notes of unlimited size, indexed by date and time. The Supervisor can then access these notes, as necessary, to provide complete plant information... Graphs of entered or calculated data may be created, saved, viewed, exported, or printed in the Operator 10® Plus Graphing Application... State and Federal Regulatory Reports can be printed on forms provided by a Regulatory Agency or printed entirely on plain paper for direct submittal." Other software available includes:AllMax Task Manager - $4,000.00 Water Data Management - $3,100.00BioSolids Data Management - $3,100.00PreTreatment Data Management - $3,100.00 Back to top
Name:OPS 32 (formerly OPS WiN) Source: OPS SYSTEMS Cost::base price, 3,000-- downloadable demo "...software for water & wastewater data management...The program manages your data, does your reports including NPDES and State DMR's, outputs graphs which analyze and predict process performance, and comes with computer modeling routines in which you can determine the effect of process changes without risking your process. Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95,98,NT. A simplified version called OPS EZ is available for $1,400. Also JOB Cal --a computerized maintenance management system . ..enter your equipment list, work to be done, and how often you want it done ... JOB Cal software automatically builds a job calendar that ... tells you what needs to be done, whats coming up, and whats overdue. To reschedule a job, just drag it to the new date. " Cost::$800 An upgraded version called JOB Plus ($2,000) also has a "graphics feature to display pictures of equipment or even your employees. PLUS more user-level security options." Back to top
Name: TREDAT Source: Cochrane Associates Inc. Cost::? "Data Handling, Calculations, Graphing, & Reports ...[a] data handling and process control software program for wastewater treatment facilities. Calculations are based on daily input values from laboratory data, plant logs and monitored concentrations. Daily/monthly/yearly summaries are configured by the user and viewed or printed. State and NPDES reports are generated monthly. Trending analysis is performed using running averages, statistics and various graphing options. Statistical analysis incorporates correlation coefficients of determination, multiple regression and other functions. This software is tailored to individual plants with respect to unit types, sizes and operational controls. Also available: TREMAIN® Scheduling and Reporting of Equipment Maintenance ... a comprehensive equipment information, maintenance scheduling and inventory management software program for municipal and/or industrial facilities. Specific information and maintenance requirements for any piece of plant equipment is organized and stored. Reviews of equipment keep track of both running and lapsed time for each piece of equipment and generate work orders which need to be performed when predetermined running or lapsed time intervals have been exceeded. The program records when preventative or corrective maintenance is accomplished, by whom, spare parts used and costs incurred. Maintenance, inventory and cost history for any or all equipment may be viewed or printed for any time interval. Inventory management produces requisition orders which include vendor information. Back to top
Name:NPDES Discharge Monitoring Report Form TemplatesTMSource: CHEMSW Cost::Win or Mac, $299 "[an] Excel template... [for] completing your periodic NPDES DMR forms. The program is easy to configure so it exactly matches your reporting requirements. Reports can be readily printed or archived for later retrieval and results can be exported in a variety of standard data formats. The printed form looks identical to the standard NPDES DMR form. Also, state templates Back to top
Name:WDMS (Wastewater Data Management) Source: Enfotech Cost:: ? "Permit Management, Monitoring Management, ND Data Management, DMR Calculation, Compliance Management, Discharge Trend Analysis, External Data Interface, LAN compatable"--- downloadable demoSee also DMR Server (Electronic DMR Data Transfer)Back to top
Name:Monitor 5 for Windows Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: $4,900, US (evaluation copy available)"[an] environmental data management and monitoring application that can comprehensively manage, evaluate and present most types of environmental information... from a variety of sources including: Groundwater and Surface Water, Soils Licensed Discharge, Stormwater, Laboratory QA Procedures, Solid and Hazardous Waste, Emissions, Leachate and Underdrain, Drinking Water, and Treatment Plant Discharge, among others... can manage any size or number of monitoring and testing programs... can readily connect to a variety of commercial databases..." Back to top
Industrial Pretreatment Programs
Name: Operator 10 Pre-Treatment Management Source: Allmax Cost: $2,350-- downloadable demo "An essential management tool for any facility accepting, monitoring, or regulating industrial flows. Features: Industry List & Editor: unlimited number, maintain complete information; Sampling Points: hourly, daily or monthly; Limit Editor: surcharge limits, violation limits... ; DataView: spreadsheet-style grids, multiple style graphs ; Operator Notes; Reports: Limit Report, Surcharge Report, SNC Report, Industry Sampling Report, Facility Sampling Report and an Action Log Report.; Parameter List: 15,000 USEPA defined and user-defined parameters; Multiple Facilities; Password / Security ; Locked Data / Security; English / Metric Capabilities; Import / Export; Context Sensitive Help"Back to top
Name: PRETRE2 Source: Cochrane Associates Inc. Cost::? (downloadable demo)"...an industrial pretreatment software program for municipal wastewater treatment systems... fully menu driven database encompasses the realm of industrial discharge monitoring through comprehensive information management, tracking of accomplishments and reports generation. The required letters and forms are configured by the user and printed utilizing information from an industrial database by indicating the desired industry. Report generation for state and regulatory agencies ... Sampling results are automatically screened for violations during entry. A separate file keeps all pertinent violation information, including notification data and corrective action taken. CAPABILITIES: Permit Tracking, Sample Monitoring, Reporting, Significant Non-Compliance" Back to top Name: CAPTAINS Source: Goldie and Associates Cost: Base Price -single user version, $2,995.00 --- multiple user version, Base + $300/user-- demo available(Computer Aided Pretreatment And Information Navigation Systems)--- Modules Included :... Sampling, Sample Reporting, Industry Specifications, Parameter Specifications, SNC Determination, Yearly Summaries(daily max; monthly average), NOV Reporting, Inspections, Compliance Schedules, Industry Permits, Pretreatment Reports Specific to State. Additional Customization Options Available..." There is also a CAPTAINS-Lite for $1,000 less for use by an individual regulated industry.Back to top
Name: LinkoCTS+ Source: LinkoWeb Cost: $3,000 to $6,000 depending on modules purchased, additonal $1,000 for network versionIndustrial Pretreatment Compliance Tracking Software...purchase only the functionality that your pretreatment program needs. CTSPlus is built in three modules; CTS Base, Compliance ASSISTANT and the Schedule PRO...CTS Base module: Track IU's, permit information, contact information, Import/Enter analytical testing samples and results, Check results for compliance violations, Automatically create professional reports Compliance ASSISTANT module: Calculate Significant Non Compliance (SNC) for parameters, TRC and Chronic violations, Reports tailored to SNC violationsSchedule PRO module: Schedule any pretreatment task, Sampling, inspections, invoices, violation notices and more.requires Microsoft Access 8.0 ® and IBM® or compatible PC with at least a Pentium®80486 [SIC] processor. Downloadable Powerpoint demoBack to top Name: PACS Pretreatment Software for POTWs Source: Enfotech Cost: ?"Local Limit Modeling, Permit Management, DMR Data Management, Compliance Inspection, Noncompliance Detection, Enforcement Management, Surcharge Management"LAN compatable... downloadable demo Back to top Name: PRELIM 5.0 Source: USEPA (Region 9) Cost: free DOS software from the US EPA, last updated in 1996: PRELIM calculates and allocates technically-based local discharge limits for industrial pretreatment programs, based on considerations of pollutant pass-though, accumulation in the sludge, and inhibition to treatment processes. A list of industries and their pollutant loadings, background concentrations, and treatment plant operating information form the input for the calculations. A printable users' manual in Wordperfect format is included in the 340K self-extracting zip file download. Note that entries are limited to four decimal places, which leads to problems with some water quality limits.Note that "PCME" software, a free program for tracking pretreatment monitoring and compliance, which was previously available from the EPA, has not been supported since 1993 and was not Y2K compliant.Back to top
Name: PreWin Source: PreWin Cost: ?"PreWin helps POTW's monitor and enforce Industrial User (IU) compliance with federal Pretreatment regulations. PreWin schedules and tracks IU and POTW activities, monitors sampling results and automatically detects effluent discharge and reporting violations. Designed according to EPA regulations, PreWin determines Significant Non-Compliance (SNC) and supports generation and tracking of enforcement actions." Minimum requirements: PC, Pentium III, Windows 95 can customize, "upsize", network. Demo disks can be requested online.Back to top
Wastewater Operations Training
Name: Operations Training Wastewater Treatment Course on CD-ROM Source: Water Environment Federation Cost::Member Price: $1,495; Non-Member Price: $1,795 "... multimedia training software ... covers : preliminary treatment, primary treatment, activated sludge, stabilization lagoons, fixed film, reactors, solids handling, and disinfection.... contains: beginner, intermediate and advanced skill levels... actual photos and video enhanced animations... final exam with randomly generated questions that guarantee a different question each time and the ability to access any module for instant clarification of a topic anytime you want. Order No. E52267WW (Note: this CD-ROM will not run on Macintosh© computers.)" Back to top
Name: WasteWater Training Program© (WWTP™) Source: Lewis & Zimmerman Associates, Inc.Cost:: $195 US (downloadable demo) "interactive training program... [a]ccommodating both the novice and the advanced wastewater treatment plant operator/supervisor... features a simulator, which allows users to create a wastewater treatment plant and simulate "what-if" scenarios to troubleshoot situations—before they occur in real life... provides in-depth coverage of the technologies, theory, disciplines, and processes needed to obtain and maintain state certification or advanced training in wastewater treatment plant operations. Animations help to visualize the operations of complex plant processes...integrates simulations, text, graphics, and stereo sound into an attractive, easy-to-use interface."Back to top
Wastewater Treatment Plant Modeling
Name: BioWin Source: Envirosim Cost: $6,000 or $1,500 per year lease (I have been informed that the academic version of BioWin is now available to degree-granting institutions for $100 dollars (formerly $1000) )-- downloadable demo version"...a comprehensive tool for analysis of biological wastewater treatment systems. The package was developed with the primary objective of providing a powerful tool to aid both the process designer and operators of these facilities...easy to use.... has been developed as a Microsoft Windows application... [with the] familiar interface and menu structure. Context-sensitive Help is built into BioWin to provide on-line assistance, particularly for new users."Back to top
Name: EFOR Source: DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute) Cost: ? (demo download available)"EFOR is an advanced software simulation package for modeling the processes in a wastewater treatment plant. It is a valuable tool for the plant operator or the designer in forecasting or explaining the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Different scenarios for plant configuration, plant operation and influent can easily be constructed and tested."Back to top
Name: GPS-X Source: Hydromantis (UK, Canada) Cost: ? Downloadable demo(50 MB) or free demo CD--Windows 95, 98 or NT 4.0 "...wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) modelling and simulation software package...you can mimic your plant interactively and dynamically, improve your plant capacity, save on operating costs, obtain answers to your "What If" questions, and... more... A plant simulator... able to mimic the actual plant - complete with influent changes, interacting processes and... internal adjustments to the processes by operators... easy to use graphical environment... over 400 different process models... available... build a layout of your plant by manipulating graphical icons on a drawing board and assigning the appropriate process models and parameter values. GPS-X then compiles the objects into a plant model... GPS-X models can also form the basis of a control system in a WWTP. When linked to a real plant SCADA system, modules such as the Dynamic Parameter Estimator track and adjust key values to automatically maintain good calibration and provide early warning of potential plant upsets.""April 30, 2001 - Hydromantis, Inc. announced the release of software named CapdetWorks for the design and costing of wastewater treatment plants. CapdetWorks is a planning level design and costing tool that allows the user to drag-and-drop unit processes to build a wastewater treatment plant schematic, automatically calculate a design and then estimate the cost to build, operate and maintain the facility... About sixty treatment processes are provided including physical/chemical, biological, biosolids stabilization, handling and de-watering technologies...." Cost: US$ 2,450 per license. Free evaluations can be downloaded from the company web site."August 13, 2001 - Aquavarra Research Limited of Dublin, Ireland has provided exclusive international rights to Hydromantis...for the distribution and support of their ARTS hydraulic design software... a comprehensive, yet intuitive tool to assist engineers with hydraulic design and analysis... including automatic design of system components, hydraulic profiles through treatment plants, waterhammer analysis, force mains and complex water distribution networks. ARTS version 1.2 is available for all Windows systems and sells for [US $1,950] per license outside Ireland." Back to top
Name: Process Advisor Pro Source: Optimal Control Research (Finland) Cost: $495 --Downloadable trial version "Process Advisor Pro is a software package for real time simulation, analysis and control of the biological wastewater treatment process", including nitrification and denitrification . "Run Simulation And Estimation to visualize processes like biomass concentration, organic matter concentration in wastewater and treated water, etc. Choose from more than 20 control algorithms, including sludge load control, sludge loading control, sludge age control, sludge concentration control, and organic matter concentration control....Highly visual. Almost all characteristics of every process are available as charts, which are drawn in real time ..."also available, Process Advisor, Price $395 "A lesser version of Process Advisor Pro... without nitrification and denitrification capabilities..."; Process Advisor MBR [Carbon removal in membrane bioreactor: Price $449]; and Settler Specialist [Clarifier analysis : Price $199] Back to top
Name: SASS and SASSPro Source: Science Traveller International Cost: SASS~ A$325 (Australian) (US$215); SASSpro A$850(US$560) " SASS is an MS-Windows introductory modelling program for steady-state Activated Sludge Simulations. Based on a fully aerobic system, SASS provides mixed liquor, biomass,oxygen, nitrification and effluent calculations with selectable primary wastewater characteristics, temperature coefficients and kinetic constants. SASSPro is an advanced version providing extended modelling facilities across 8 primary BNR plant configurations, with selection from over 50 process parameters. Additional facilities include denitrification, phosphorus removal and alkalinity calculations, sludge disposal costing and aeration power requirements. Reactor volumes, recycle rates, oxygen levels and wastewater characteristics are fully configurable, with dynamic re-calculation of Rsm (minimum sludge age for nitrification) and optimum MLSS 'a' recycle flow rates."Back to top
Name: STOAT Source: DHI Software Cost: ?"STOAT is a PC based computer modelling tool designed to dynamically simulate the performance of a wastewater treatment works. The software can be used to simulate individual treatment processes or the whole treatment works, including sludge treatment processes, septic tank imports and recycles. The model enables the user to optimise the response of the works to changes in the influent loads, works capacity or process operating conditions. See this MP & Associates site for a further description. Back to top
Name: WEST Source: HEMMIS N.V. (Belgium) Cost:? Downloadable demo"WEST® offers a user-friendly modeling and simulation platform for different processes: wastewater modeling and simulation, river modeling and simulation, catchment modeling and simulation, fermentation modeling and simulation, ecological modeling and simulation... Process optimization; Cost reduction; Bottleneck identification; Controller design; Training; Automation "Back to top
Name: STORMAX Source: Enviromega, Inc.Cost: free (DOS)"STORMAX is a PC-based software program for evaluting strategies to minimize wet weather flow impacts at wastewater treatment plants. The program predicts the hydraulic capacity of a wastewater treatment plant... [b]y incorporating a model that predicts the solids distribution in an aeration basin, for various influent feed points, with a correlation that relates sludge settling characteristics with the settler overflow rate... The program output displays the available modes of operation for a plant with their respective capacities, and selects the optimal mode of operation."Back to top
Name: TOXCHEM+ Source: Enviromega, Inc.Cost: $3,000 single user 1st copy, academic 1/3-- demo download "TOXCHEM+ provides a quick and easy way to evaluate the fate of toxic organic chemicals and metals in wastewater sewer systems and treatment plants. The model includes mechanisms for volatilization, biodegradation and sorption to solids. Simply build a treatment process interactively by dragging and dropping icons on to a grid, connect them together, enter the process data and run the model. The current version of TOXCHEM+ runs on Windows 3.1, 3.11 and Windows 95 and Windows NT."Back to top
Name: WATER 8 and CHEMDAT 8 Source: USEPA Cost: free"WATER8 is an analytical model for estimating compound-specific air emissions from wastewater collection & treatment systems. CHEMDAT8 is a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet that includes analytical models for estimating VOC emissions from treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) processes. Contact the WATER8 and CHEMDAT8 hotline at(919) 541-5610 for more information dos or windows"Back to top
Laboratory Information Management
Name: Lab Master Source: Dynamic Databases.Cost: $3,995 -- free demo version is available.According to the company, users can quickly and easily handle the demands of running an efficient laboratory -- from sample log-in to invoice printing -- using this Windows-based program. Designed for the small to medium-sized lab, the product can work in may types of laboratories,such as analytical, environmental, petrochemical and biological." Back to top
Name: Lab Task Source: RJ Lee Solutions Cost: ?"RJ Lee Solutions ... provides laboratory automation products and services, including a suite of Y2K compliant, PC based laboratory automation systems... Powerful features and functionality include sample login, tracking, work-load planning, manual and automated results entry, expanded QA/QC capabilities, control charting, flagging, and reporting. RJ Lee Solutions integrates these products with a wide variety of technical services. Installed applications include environmental, process control, wastewater/drinking water... labs. Through a technology transfer agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) in the early 1990's, RJ Lee Group acquired exclusive rights to commercialize two laboratory automation software products: RLIMS, a relational laboratory information management system based on a design developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and SIRS, a Sample Information Retrieval System, developed by DOE.... In 1997, RJ Lee Group acquired the Lab Task LIMS software from LabVantage Solutions."Back to top
Name: LabLite 2000 Source: LabLite Cost: pricing by rep., free Demo and evaluation version, "LabLite LLC is a full-service LIMS provider...Our flagship product, LabLite 2000, can be scaled to any environment...[and] is versatile enough to be adapted to meet the needs of any lab. From one user to a thousand, from environmental to forensics..."Back to top
Name: LABTROL Source: Sullivan Software Cost: single user $ 4,500; LAN version $ 6,000. [Rent-to-Own over 5 years]"..a FoxPro-based LIMS... has been in the market since 1989 and is installed in environmental labs in 13 states...developed for use specifically in labs performing environmental analyses... a full-featured LIMS that provides sample tracking, reporting, security, data analysis and entry, data confirmation, billing and more." Back to top
Name: LABWORKS Source: Analytical Automation Specialists, Inc Cost: ?"...first introduced over 14 years ago as one of the first PC-Based LIMS...The latest offering from AAS is LABWORKSelect, a suite of unique industry-specific LIMS solutions. LABWORKSelect includes packages for environmental labs, water and wastewater labs, process control labs, industrial labs and utilities...LABWORKS special applications include a Process Scheduler, NPDES Reporting, Industrial , LWQuote module, customizable COAs, LWExplorer (inter/intranet access),interface to TerraBase validation and ArcView GIS software. Reporting ... [uses] standard word processing applications such as Word, Access, Excel, and Crystal. Standard features include single and multi-sample login, results entry, reporting, archive and retrieve, validation, QA Batching, complete calculations, etc. Remote data entry is available using the Portable Data Entry Terminal (PDET) or Field Data Entry Terminal (FDET). AAS also offers numerous instrument interfaces to LABWORKS."Back to top
Name: Sample Master® Source: Accelerated Technology Laboratories, Inc. Cost: ?"...a complete Windows-based LIMS for the small to mid-size laboratory...ease of use was the main objective... created using Microsoft's Access...data, including data from instruments, can be directly imported and exported to and from other Windows-based applications...cost was an important consideration. Sample Master has no "per user" fee ...modularity allows you to purchase just the portions of the LIMS that you need, and additional modules can be purchased as your laboratory grows."Back to top
Name: MSC-LIMS Source: Mountain States Consulting, LLC Cost: Only $500 for a single-user Annual Subscription license and $7,000 for a Full System license with all source code. Downloadable demo available."MSC-LIMS is a flexible, powerful, secure and stable GALP-compliant laboratory information management system designed for small to mid-sized labs. Current MSC-LIMS installations include water/wastewater, commercial environmental, food testing and petrochemical applications... available in both single-user and multi-user versions for small workgroups of up to twenty concurrent users. MSC-LIMS is suitable for labs processing up to 75,000 samples per year and up to 300,000 analyses per year."... developed initially by the Cheyenne, Wyoming, wastewater treatment plant laboratoryBack to top
Name: LABTrack™ Source: CHEMSW Cost: Single-User ,$ 495.00; Five-User , $ 1,995.00; Fifteen-User $ 4,995.00"Electronic Lab Notebook....LABTrack can store ALL of the data that your lab produces -Raw and Reduced....batch and sample data, results, notes, SOP's, chromatograms, spectra, spreadsheets, word processing doc's, photographs...can be used simultaneously by one or many people...the optional Crystal Reports software supports linking multiple notebooks together for laboratory and organization-wide reporting needs...can define an unlimited number of tests, analysts, products etc...incorporates the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Electronic Signature standard ...includes over a dozen predefined reports for functions common to most laboratories...Export[s] data ... into other Windows applications.... Requires Windows 95, 98 or Windows NT..."Back to top
Name: LabMaestro Ensemble (LME) Source: CHEMSW Cost: ?"LME is part of the family of LIMS and laboratory automation solutions developed and supported LabVantage Solutions (LVS), the world's largest independent LIMS provider. PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS: Complete Sample Management, Work Assignments, Audit Trails, Comprehensive Reporting, Result Entry & Validation, Quoting & Invoicing, Instrument Interfacing, QC Reporting, Oracle & SQL Server Databases, Automates manual tasks, Offers real-time QC data and charts..."Back to top
Name: WWTP 2000™ Source: CHEMSW Cost: $ 999(not a full LIMS) "...inexpensive and easy to use wastewater laboratory data management application... [a] Microsoft Excel application designed specifically for municipal wastewater laboratories. Enter your raw laboratory data into the electronic benchsheets and... calculate values based on Standard Methods calculations. All the basic benchsheets have been incorporated into WWTP2000 including BOD, Suspended Solids Ammonia -N, Total Solids and Acid Alkalinity. Data can be linked dynamically to daily and monthly lab reports ... you can instantly visualize what the removal efficiency for a particular day is with 3-D column charts to assist you in making decisions on process control. WWTP 2000 will chart ... process control data for quick reference."Back to top See also CHEMSW's site for software to perform simpler chemical calculations useful in lab work.Back to top
Name: ItemTracker Source: MediData Systems Limited Cost: "Lite" version, £750; ItemTracker Standalone ('ItemTracker Professional' for a single machine), £1250 and Annual License Fee £750 (after first year, includes support and upgrades); network version-- price not listed. ."Sample Tracking and Storage Area Management... ItemTracker is a highly configurable all-inclusive sample management and tracking solution." "A 'Sample Tracker' for all sites... Supports ALL storage configurations and sample types... Clients using ItemTracker range from small laboratories with one or two users storing a few hundred samples to much larger sites with many users storing millions of samples... Sample tracking wherever your samples are - in storage, the laboratory or elsewhere... Absolutely ANY storage system configuration can be replicated... An audit trail can be viewed at any time for any item to see who has done what, to which items, from where and when..." Back to top
Name: MINEQL+ Source: MINEQL Cost: Free DOS version-- Windows version$500 (free demo download) This is not lab information management software, but rather a chemical equilibrium modeling program. "This program was orignally designed to be a research tool but it is currently used in over 500 colleges and universities worldwide as an aid in teaching aquatic chemistry.... create systems by selecting chemical components from a menu, scan the thermodynamic database and run the calculation...., create a personal thermodynamic database, perform synthetic titrations and automatically process mutiple samples (such as field data)... MINEQL+ uses a thermodynamic database that contains the entire USEPA MINTEQA2 database plus data for chemical components that the EPA did not include, so all calculations will produce results compatible with EPA specifications... " MINEQL+ Runs on Windows 3.1/95/NT
Stream Modeling
Name: BASINS Source: USEPA Cost: free Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources A system developed to help EPA and state agencies to assess watershed water quality issues caused by point and non-point sources of pollution. "It integrates a geographic information system (GIS), national watershed data, and state-of-the-art environmental assessment and modeling tools into one convenient package." It includes the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), which "simulates the major reactions of nutrient cycles, algal production, benthic and carbonaceous demand, atmospheric reaeration and their effects on the dissolved Oxygen balance. It can predict up to 15 water quality constituent concentrations. It is intended as a water quality planning tool for developing total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and can also be used in conjunction with field sampling for identifying the magnitude and quality characteristics of nonpoint sources." UPDATE:August 31, 2001 BASINS Version 3.0 is now available on CDROMs. BASINS, "A Powerful Tool for Managing Watersheds" is a multipurpose environmental analysis system that integrates a geographical information system (GIS), national watershed data, and state-of-the-art environmental assessment and modeling tools into one convenient package. BASINS 3 introduces two new water quality models PLOAD and SWAT, several new tools, new updated national datasets, and an online help feature. Back to top
Name: HEC-HMS Source: Water Resources Consulting Services Cost: $75 - 95 "Hydrology modeling software from US army corps of engineers HEC-HMS provides a variety of options for simulating precipitation-runoff processes and is comprised of a graphical user interface (GUI), integrated hydrologic analysis components, data storage and management capabilities, and graphics and reporting facilities."Back to top
Name: HEC-RAS Source: Haestad Methods Cost: $495 single user license "HEC-RAS is the Army Corps of Engineer's Hydraulic Engineering Center River Analysis System. This product is now available from Haestad Methods…" " HEC-RAS analyzes networks of natural and man-made channels and computes water surface profiles on steady one dimensional flow hydraulics."Back to top
Name: ISIS River Basin Management Systems Source: HR Wallingford (UK) Cost: ? (free trial download or CD available) " ISIS includes modules suitable for carrying out a wide range of environmental and pollution management studies. Used in conjunction with the hydrodynamic modules, the ISIS environmental modules can be used to: Study the environmental impact of changes in water quality and flow regimes on river and canal systems; Assess the effects of reduced residual flows, Study saline intrusion and water quality processes in tidal rivers; Predict the effect of pollution incidents on downstream or upstream conditions; Simulate the transport of cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. ISIS also links to the HydroWorks wastewater modelling system from Wallingford Software for simulating the impact of urban drainage discharges on receiving waters." Back to top
Name: MIKE 11 Source: DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute) Cost: ? (demo download available) "MIKE 11 is a professional engineering software package for the simulation of flows, water quality and sediment transport in estuaries, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. It is a dynamic, user-friendly one-dimensional modelling tool for the detailed design, management and operation of both simple and complex river and channel systems."See the DHI Software pages for other pacakges in the MIKE series, including software for marine, coastal and hydrology modeling.Back to top
Name: PC-QUASAR Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: price $7,400 (Universities, $300 20-user license) "PC-QUASAR is a river network water quality and flow model for river networks. It is designed to be used by river regulatory authorities and water/sewerage utility companies to help manage river water quality. PC-QUASAR allows easy comparison between the existing state of the river and that which would exist after a planned change or an unplanned event had occurred in the river network. PC-QUASAR describes the changes in water quality over time and allows tracking of pollution pulses downstream. Output is in the form of color graphics on the screen or plotter and in tabular form on printers. Parameters modeled are flow, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, temperature, E. Coli, pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and a conservative pollutant or tracer."Back to top
Name: WASP5 Source: Computational Hydraulics Int.-USEPA Cost: free download " Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP5) is a generalized framework for modeling contaminant fate and transport in surface waters. Based on the flexible compartment modeling approach, it can be applied in one, two or three dimensions. Problems studied using WASP5 include biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen dynamics, nutrients and eutrophication, bacterial contamination, and organic chemical and heavy metal contamination. WASP5 includes two kinetic sub models, EUTRO5 and TOXI5, to simulate both conventional and toxic pollution. Used primarily to investigate the water quality response to management actions, WASP5 is a tremendous asset in computing point and nonpoint source load reduction."Back to top
Sewer Modeling / Design / Hydraulics
Name: Civil Engineering Software Toolbox Source: CivilTools Cost: shareware, $33 " CivilTools is a software package for Windows 3.1, 95, 98, or NT which assists a qualified Civil Engineering designer in performing various hydraulic calculations related to the flow of water in pipes, culverts, ditches, and channels."Back to top
Name: HydraGraphics Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: $2,500 to 5,500 "… [S]ewer analysis, design and management software [f]or stormwater, sanitary wastewater, or combined collection systems --- options for generating sanitary flow injections--- stormwater runoff methods--- infiltration/inflow capability--- Dynamic modeling to find worst-case scenarios--- System design features, construction cost estimation, and more … " downloadable slide-show demo--- Win 3.1/95/NT - exports to Autocadä Back to top
Name: Hydroworks Source: HR Wallingford (UK) Cost: ? "... dynamic simulation and design tool for urban drainage… Model all key elements of a wastewater planning project… running under Windows 3.x, 95, 98, and NT"Back to top
Name: LMNO Source: LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. Cost: Free, on-line, Java-based flow and hydraulics calculations " Our current web-based software is in the hydraulics engineering area. We hope to develop additional software for simulating natural phenomena such as groundwater migration and remediation systems for cleanup of polluted rivers and aquifers. We are also considering development of water and wastewater treatment plant software and software to complement college engineering courses."Back to top
Name: MOUSE Source: DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute)Cost: ? (demo download available) "MOUSE is advanced, powerful, and comprehensive surface runoff, open channel flow, pipe flow, water quality and sediment transport modelling package for urban drainage systems, storm water sewers and sanitary sewers. MOUSE combines complex hydrology, hydraulics, water quality and sediment transport in a completely graphical, easy-to-use interface."They also offer MIKE SWMM, Wastewater and stormwater modeling based on the US-EPA SWMM engine (see below) and MIKE NET, Water distribution systems including real-time control and water quality - based on the US-EPA EPANET engine. Back to top
Name: Sanitary Sewers Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: $875 "Sanitary Sewers models complex networks in full or partial flow conditions. Sanitary Sewers has full design capabilities that size pipes, set inverted elevations for gravity lines and hydraulically model lift stations with multiple pumps. Specify design flows through land use analysis and/or by user-defined flows including infiltration rates and peak flow factors. Model new or existing sewer systems and compute the hydraulic grade line for each." --requires Autocadä Back to top
Name: SewerCAD Source: Haestad Methods Cost: ? " … [a] design and analysis tool that allows you to layout a collection system, develop and compute sanitary loads, and simulate the hydraulic response of the entire system - including gravity and pressure forcemains. --- comprehensive design capabilities for sizing and locating sewer system pipes on either a system-wide or pipe-by-pipe basis. SewerCAD can be run using Haestad Methods own Stand-Alone Windows interface, or directly inside AutoCADä ." Another product of this company is StormCAD, a storm sewer design and analysis model for Windowsä .Back to top
Name: SewerCAT Source: Reid Crowther Cost: Free"[U]se SewerCAT to model sewer networks ... provides a flexible, fully object oriented framework for modeling dynamics of sewer networks... .it is available at no cost and can be freely shared... it includes features which are important for design, implementation and testing of operational strategies such as supervisory real time control... the software architecture is component based and highly modularized; the long term direction is for distributed development, where individual users can implement their own components. " Back to top
Name: SWMM Source: CEE Cost: free? (Originated from US EPA )"Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) - comprehensive computer model for analysis of quantity and quality problems associated with urban runoff.… Modeler can simulate all aspects of the urban hydrologic and quality cycles, including rainfall, snowmelt, surface and subsurface runoff, flow routing through drainage network, storage and treatment. Statistical analyses can be performed on long-term precipitation data and on output from continuous simulation. SWMM can be used for planning and design…" Current version is 4.30,released in May 1994.Back to top
Name: PCSWMM Source: Computational Hydraulics Int. (CHI) Cost: ? " graphical decision support system for the USEPA SWMM program…. provides a large array of file management, model development, model calibration, output interpretation/presentation, and reference tools for the stormwater modeler. Written for the Windows '95/'98 and Windows NT 4.0 operating systems…Back to top
Other Software Listings
Name: The Wastewater Engineering Virtual Library is a site with many links to wastewater information, including municipal, academic, research, and commercial resources. Enter "software" as a search term to get a list.
Name: EnviroInfo: Software
Name: Laboratory Information Management Systems Source: LIMSource A clearinghouse, with many links to for LIMS vendors and other sources of informationBack to top

Re: energy recovery from dairy waste


 

Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations across the globe.  The daily per capita solid waste generated in India ranges from about 100 g in small towns to 500 g in large towns. It takes anywhere between three and seven days for the waste to be disposed from the time of its generation. Major portion of the collected waste is dumped in landfill sites. The recyclable content of waste ranges from about 13% to 20%. In a developing country like India, paper, plastic, glass, rubber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals – all the material that can be recycled are salvaged from this waste to produce low-cost products extensively used by the lower-income groups of the society. However, data collected from 44 Indian cities have revealed that about 70% of them do not have adequate capacity for collection and transportation of MSW (municipal solid waste) (Pachauri and Sridharan 1998). The uncollected waste that usually finds its way in sewers is eaten by the cattle, or left to rot in the open, or burnt on roadsides.

In the face of burgeoning urban populations and growing mounds of garbage, initiatives like converting garbage into energy could show the way for cities. A private company has begun converting the city's garbage into fuel pellets and now plans to establish a 10 MW power plant. According to TIFAC (Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council), Delhi, Mumbai, and Calcutta would be generating 5000 tonnes of garbage every day, in about a decade, and disposal would be difficult. The existing dumping years would create enormous pollution and health hazards. Municipal authorities would find it expensive to transport garbage and dispose it of scientifically, according to a TIFAC data sheet on 'Fuel pellets from municipal waste'. As part of a pilot project for integrated waste management, the Department of Science and Technology had established a prototype fuel pelletization plant at Deonar, Mumbai, in the early 1990s. The plant was designed to process Indian garbage. The garbage was first dried to bring down the high moisture levels. Sand, grit, and other incombustible matter were then mechanically separated before the garbage was compacted and converted into pellets. Fuel pellets have several distinct advantages over coal and wood, according to the TIFAC data sheet. It is cleaner, free from incombustibles, has lower ash and moisture contents, is of uniform size, cost-effective, and eco-friendly (The Hindu, 2 May 2000).


In addition to MSW, large quantity of waste, in both solid and liquid forms, is generated by the industrial sector like breweries, sugar mills, distilleries, food-processing industries, tanneries, and paper and pulp industries. Out of the total pollution contributed by industrial subsectors, 40% to 45% of the total pollutants can be traced to the processing of industrial chemicals and nearly 40% of the total organic pollution to the food products industry alone. Food products and agro-based industries together contribute 65% to 70% of the total industrial waste water in terms of organic load (Pachauri and Sridharan 1998a). Table 1 gives an estimate of waste generated in India by various sectors and industries.

Table 1  Estimated quantity of waste generated in India

Waste Quantity
Municipal solid waste 27.4 million tonnes/year
Municipal liquid waste (121 class I and II cities) 12145 million litres/day
Distillery (243 nos) 8057 kilo litres/day
Pressmud 9 million tonnes/year
Food and fruit processing waste 4.5 million tonnes/year
Willow dust 30000 tonnes/year
Dairy industry waste (COD level 2 kg/m3) 50–60 million litres/day
Paper and pulp industry waste (300 mills) 1600 m3 waste water/day
Tannery (2000 nos) 52500 m3 waste water/day

Source Bakthavatsalam (1999)


In addition, the daily per capita sewage generation is about 150 litres. The total sewage generated in India, about 5 billion litres/day in 1947, grew to 30 billion litres/day in 1997. However, the total treatment capacity available is only about 10% of this quantum generated. It is estimated that under the Ganga Action Plan, 46 000 Nm3 (normal cubic metre) of biogas can be produced daily from the sewage treatment plants in 21 Indian cities by treating about 339 million litres/day of municipal waste water. This, with appropriate biogas power plants, will generate total electrical energy of 99 450 kWh/day (Singh 1996).


The urban municipal waste (both solid and liquid) – industrial waste coming from dairies, distilleries, pressmud, tanneries, pulp and paper, and food processing industries, etc., agro waste and biomass in different forms – if treated properly, has a tremendous potential for energy generation as shown in Table 2.

Table 2  Estimated renewable energy potential in India

Energy source Estimated potential
Bio energy 17000 MW
Draught animal power 30000 MW
Energy from MSW 1000 MW
Biogas plants 12 million plants

Source Bakthavatsalam (1999)

 

Options for waste management

Last year, the INSWAREB (Institute of Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance) came up with the theory that rice husk, a cheap by-product of paddy milling, has the potential to galvanize the electricity-starved rural India. With a gross calorific value of 3000 kcal/kg, rice husk, capable of high-efficiency combustion, could serve as the fuel for mini power plants of 1 to 2 MW capacity that can be set up in rural areas. The RHA (rice husk ash), obtained as a by-product by burning it, can generate power in the process.

The cost of establishing and maintaining the mini power plant can be easily made good by exporting RHA, which can fetch $50 a tonne. INSWAREB has drawn an action plan for promoting RHA fully exploiting its export potential. It proposes to initiate a couple of mini power plants to popularize the theme. (The Hindu, 9 February 1999).


Similarly, at an inter-ministerial meeting involving the ministries of power, environment and forests, and urban affairs and employment, it was decided to encourage the use of fly ash bricks in all construction activities. The NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) had thought of setting up two fly ash brick manufacturing plants at Badarpur and Dadri near Delhi; the theory being that fly ash, apart from being used as a substitute for bricks, could also be utilized for the embankment of roads.

The enormous amount of ash generated in Indian thermal power stations poses a serious threat to the environment. In principle, this problem can be tackled by using fly ash in building construction. Increased awareness and use of fly ash bricks, which is stronger (100 kg/cm2 compared to 50–75 kg/cm2 of conventional bricks) and smoother on the sides (reducing plastering costs significantly), can provide an eco-friendly solution. Fly ash bricks are better than traditional bricks in the sense also that ash bricks do not use the top fertile soil of the earth, thus protecting the land from agricultural use. Located at the south-east corner of Delhi, the BTPS (Badarpur Thermal Power Station) meets more than 25% of the energy consumption of the capital. It also produces a staggering amount of ash every day (almost 5000 tonnes). The station has, however, been making concrete efforts in ash utilization as a responsible corporate citizen. It has given a major thrust in ash utilization through the manufacture of bricks from fly ash. At present, it has seven units given to private contractors, which manufacture around 16 000 bricks every day. The BTPS had installed a pilot-cum-demonstration plant at its ash dyke way back in 1993. The station adopted the FAL-G technology for the manufacture of ash bricks, which does not require firing or autoclaving. These bricks require natural drying and hence are totally energy-efficient and environment-friendly (The Financial Express, 4 April 1999).


It was also estimated that an energy-from-waste plant, which was to be set up in Scotland, would annually convert 120 000 tonnes of the city's municipal and commercial waste into electricity. It as also to deal with small amounts of non-hazardous clinical and liquid wastes. Besides generating adequate electricity for the plant's in-house needs of around 2.2 MW, it would sell 8.3 MW to the National Grid, electricity distribution network of UK. The facility incorporated two separate systems – fuel processing and combustion.

To produce the fuel, incoming waste is fed into one of the two hammer mills, where it is shredded into coarse floc material. Each of the mills handles 30 tonnes of waste an hour, almost double the plant's throughput of 15.6 tonnes an hour. The over-capacity allows for unplanned downtime. Magnets remove ferrous materials before the floc is carried by conveyor to a fuel-storage building capable of holding enough for two days’ operation—about 800 tonnes of refuse-derived fuel (The Hindu, 21 October 1999).

 

Role of the scientists

Scientists have developed a technique to treat foul-smelling polluted distillery wastes, using energy from the sun and a chemical catalyst. Tests on a small laboratory-type reactor showed that the method can detoxify 100 litres of diluted distillery waste water in five days. Results of the project at the NARI (Nimbkar Agriculture Research Institute) at Phaltan in Maharashtra were submitted to the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources). The scientists had applied for a patent on the chemical catalyst. The emphasis after this was to try to improve the technique so that waste treatment is over in just two days. The NARI scientists had taken cues from work on solar detoxification of ground-water and industrial wastes using titanium dioxide catalyst.

By purifying biogas produced from distillery wastes, scientists claimed to have generated huge quantities of com-pressed methane, a gas with immense potential as an alternative source of vehicle fuel. Experimenting with bulk distillery wastes from alcohol manufacturing breweries, researchers from the chemical engineering department of the Jadavpur University produced the gas by a process called biomethanation of the effluents. The process, which also cuts down on the environment pollution, has proved to be an eco-friendly energy production method (The Observer of Business and Politics 25 April 2000).

 

TERI shows the way

TERI—scientists has been developing new technologies to tackle the problem of waste management

TERI has developed a high-rate digester for fibrous and semi-solid municipal waste with the promise of revolutionizing the waste disposal industry. Described as TEAM (TERI Enhanced Acidification and Methanation) process, for which the patent has also been filed, the digester is said to be quick, economically viable, and suitable for food and agro-based industries and markets. In the face of evident environmental drawbacks of waste disposal methods like land-filling and incineration, the process of biomethanation of waste by anaerobic digestion has economical and social benefits apart from being environment-friendly (The Hindu, 18 March 2000).


TERI began work on the development of a high-rate digester for fibrous and semi-solid MSW in 1996. TEAM process is the culmination of these efforts. The salient features of TEAM are listed below.

sqb.gif (46 bytes)Lowered retention time (7 days) and plant area for the whole process to make it economically viable as compared to conventional single phase reactors (30–40 days) or aerobic composting (3 to 6 months)

sqb.gif (46 bytes)Complete elimination of engineering problems like scum formation, floating of feed leading to incomplete digestion, feed flow problem, etc.

sqb.gif (46 bytes)Technology suitable for adoption by small entrepreneurs

sqb.gif (46 bytes)Low water consumption because of reuse of the UASB reactor overflow to acidification reactor

sqb.gif (46 bytes)Production of good quality biogas, which can be used for power generation or thermal application like cooking or production of process steam as per the needs,

sqb.gif (46 bytes)The decrease in total volume of the feed stock after decomposition is more than 50%

sqb.gif (46 bytes)The residue after drying is good organic manure.


Currently, a bench-scale plant for processing 50 kg of vegetable waste per day is operational at the Gual Pahari campus of TERI, at Gurgaon, and efforts are under way for upscaling.


The wastes generated by various sectors need to be assessed and evaluated for their energy potential or reuse in any other form. Biomethanation has emerged as the best option for the treatment of high organic content liquids for energy generation. The use of this technology to Indian MSW is still in its developmental stage. Once a commercially proven technology is established, it will go a long way in dealing with energy problems in the country.

Tuesday, November 22, 2005

Why I quit Indian Idol II

I called a friend, a guy I refer to as my spiritual guide. All he said was that if there was no passion in it, and if I was in a "don't know" zone, maybe it wasn't for me. He was right. I had never had much to do with singing. I had tried learning from two gurus in the past, both of whom I had run away from. So, why spend time with people who clearly knew little about music – let alone 'launching' talent – and compete for something I didn't want in the first place? Just to make my neighbours happy?

Turning to my colleague, I told her I had to get out. I hugged her, wished her luck and left.

Looking back, those eight hours changed my life. I stood up for myself. I felt good about the fact that no one managed to take my laughter away from me. I could giggle as much as I wanted to.

A few people still refer to me as 'Idol'. I'm hoping they stop. Soon. I can see no pride in being someone who smiles when he or she is told to. I don't need a title for being someone's puppet. I like my own title, Archana Pania! And, you know what, I don't need a million votes to burst into song whenever I feel like either...

Archana Pania is the resident jockey at Rediff Radio and got through two rounds of Indian Idol II.

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

http://www.haithindustrial.co.uk/index.php?sec=news&news_id=9

SUBMERGED AERATED FILTERS WITHIN PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS

SUBMERGED AERATED FILTERS WITHIN PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS.

23 September 2003

Package Treatment Plants are largely known as a solution for single households, or a few houses, to replace septic tanks in rural communities where alternatives to mains drainage becomes impracticable or uneconomic. However, they are increasingly being used as a solution for larger flows, including municipal wastewaters and industrial effluents.

The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive demands that water companies must improve small and medium, waste and water treatment plants that supply less than 15,000 population, this also includes increased capacity for ammonia removal.

In contrast to conventional sewage works designed on a ‘bespoke’ basis using concrete, package sewage treatment plants are prefabricated systems incorporating single or multiple treatment stages. With the latter, this is usually primary sedimentation, secondary biological treatment and final settlement incorporated into a single, compartmentalised tank. As a complete package, these systems offer a low cost alternative in terms of design, capital cost and installation for small to medium-sized sites.

Generally, the design philosophy for package treatment plants is dependant on the flow to be treated. Plants above 100 PE are designed on a modular basis whereby each treatment process is contained within its own tank. This allows a greater flexibility in the design to suit the raw sewage characteristics and the final effluent requirements of the project. Newer designs that incorporate submerged aerated media mean that this size range is likely to be increased.

While most systems use the sedimentation process for primary treatment as well as final clarification, they can be differentiated in their choice of biological unit operations for secondary treatment, which are usually one of three options:

a)Enclosed Trickling Filters
b)Rotating Biological Contactors
c)Submerged Aerated Filters (SAF)

In three recent projects Haith Industrial have provided a package solution utilising SAF units. There proven experience in the supply of SAF units has found that they provide high performance due to their robustness and tolerance to flow and load variances.

For this reason Haith Industrial select an attached growth system carried out in an SAF Unit. Attached growth, which is where the micro-organisms are attached to random packed media as well as the effluent, percolates through the media undergoing purification during its passage. The micro-organisms grow in flocs; these flocs are responsible for the transformation of the organic material into new bacteria, carbon dioxide and water.

Haith have found that such systems are simple to operate and have low operating costs and have the ability to withstand shock and toxic loads owing to the relatively short contact time of the effluent with the slime layer. However, what is seen as the SAF units great attraction is its low maintenance and management requirements.

Haith say that being high rate, the main advantages of the SAF Unit are reduced power and maintenance costs, stability against hydraulic shock loads, and a capability of achieving a high degree of carbonaceous and nitrogenous BOD removal.

Additionally, ponding of the bed and clogging of filter nozzles is eliminated and odours and fly nuisance are also eradicated.

Project One – SAF unit alongside existing plant.

This project required the supply of two SAF modules operating in parallel with existing mineral filter beds in the location of a demolished unit.

Each of the units was manufactured from 5mm stainless steel plate and incorporated sealed roof with closed cell gasket, air blower unit including pressure relief valve, inlet silencer and air flow meter. Additionally a diffused air distribution system mounted on quick access cassettes, random media, media retaining decks and media supporting decks was included.

Both units were sized to treat 32.5% of the flow to the works; in order to establish the specification and size, Haith modelled the process by applying each of the determinants of the consent to highlight the drivers for the system. The calculations revealed that the drivers are a combination of the retention time to achieve nitrification and the BOD/media loading rate to ensure compliance with the Generic SAF Plant Specification. In this project each SAF unit was fed by gravity from a distribution chamber, within this vessel, adjustable weir plates provide an even distribution of settled sewage to each SAF for treatment. Following treatment through the plant the treated effluent will gravity flow to two conical humus tanks.

Built in stainless steel fabricated modules, each factory assembled and tested to allow quick assembly, Haith recommended above ground installation which would require only minimal ground works; access to the aeration equipment would be a simple operation of removing a set of bolts and sliding out the aeration cassette.

Each SAF module has the hydraulic capacity of approximately 4 litres per second, and was designed to the following plant data:

PE 650
Dry weather flow 1.2 litres/sec
Full flow to treatment 2.9 litres/sec
Settled BOD load 26.2 kg/day
Ammonia load 3.6 kg/day

Effluent discharge standard:

20mg/1 BOD (95% ile)
7 mg/1 AmmN (95% ile)
51mg/1 SS (95% ile)


The design of the Haith Aerated Treatment Unit (SAF) is a fixed film reactor for the oxidisation of the BOD and ammonia. As such the micro-organisms are attached to high voidage plastic media, which is random packed to prevent short cutting. Each unit has three compartments with the media selected for each compartment to provide the correct surface area/BOD/oxygen ratio.

In this project, the first compartment was fitted with lower surface area media than the following two; this provided a robust process operating at maximum efficiency with a minimum requirement for backwashing.
The unit was modular built with all ancillary equipment, membrane air diffusers, media and internal baffle plates fitted in the factory. This enabled the filter to be transported to site as an operational unit ready to run following connection of supply and discharge pipe work and the air supply equipment.

The filter was the Haith standard multiple cell upward flow design, each cell being of equal size. Stainless steel ambideck panels mounted in a common frame supported the bacteria supporting media in each cell. Additionally a holding down deck was secured to the top of the filter to retain the “swelling” media during the establishing period.
Aerobic conditions were provided in each cell by an aeration system comprising of E.D.P.M. membrane diffusers mounted on a manifold, which in turn was connected to a centrifugal type air blower set. Each manifold comprised of a number of feeder and cross pipes extending through an access door which in turn was bolted to the filter wall. The complete assembly of manifold and aeration diffusers can be drawn clear of the filter by removing the door bolts, allowing inspection and maintenance without the need to remove the media.

A sectional cover was provided, designed to span the width of the filter without the need for immediate supports. The centre cover was equipped with a water curtain to prevent the release of foam; this was fed by a submersible pump housed in the discharge launder.

Project Two – Below ground modular package plant.

In a second project Haith supplied a stainless steel fabricated package plant, comprising Primary Settlement Tank, SAF module and Final Settlement Tank, which were manufactured and delivered to site as separate modules, these were built as a single package plant on site and connected by pipework below ground.

This package plant was designed to the following plant data:

PE 250
Dry weather flow 64m3/d
Full flow to treatment 142.9m3/d


The primary settlement tank was designed in accordance with BS 6297 which ensured an upward flow velocity of no more than 0.9m3 per m2 per hour at full flow to treatment.

The tank was manufactured as an integral part of the module with a hopper bottom of steep valley angles which encouraged the sludge to compact and concentrate, additionally assisting in its movement toward the sludge gulper suction pipe.

The sewage inlet and outlet arrangements in addition to baffle plates contained the scum layer, which was removed along with the co-settled sludge.

Provision was also made for the introduction of humus sludge, which is returned from the final tank at regular intervals to be co-settled with the crude sludge.

The Haith SAF Unit was designed as project one.

The final settlement tank for this project was also designed in accordance with BS 6297 which dictates the surface loading and the retention period of the tank.

This tank also had a hopper bottom with valley angles of 60º which prevents the sludge becoming trapped where it may go septic causing sludge rising problems.

This allows the sludge to be transferred back to be co-settled with the crude sewage by a lift pump which operates either manually or by timer, frequent humus sludge return is necessary to avoid flotation of the solids caused by denitrification of highly oxidised effluents.

Project Three – Package plant as one module.

In a third project Haith supplied a package plant with the three main elements as one module. The module was split into three main sections, Primary Settlement Tank, SAF unit and Humus Tank.
This module was supplied factory assembled and tested which provided quick site installation without the need for extensive civil works.

This system was designed for the following plant load data:

PE 120
Full flow to treatment 63m3/day
Dry weather flow 28m3/day
Effluent discharge standard

BOD (SAF) 40 MG/l
Suspended solids 60 mg/l

The design of the Primary Settlement Tank was designed in accordance with BS 6297 as project two.

Design of the Haith SAF unit was as previous; however on this project the unit was housed in the centre of the package plant being gravity fed from the Primary Settlement Tank via a series of internal baffles to prevent the carryover of solids into the SAF.

Design of the Final Settlement Tank was again to BS 6297 as previous projects.

Operation of the plant in all three projects is automatic with the minimum of maintenance following commissioning, Haith have found that SAF’s that have been in operation in similar applications have proven to work with little to no operator maintenance and intervention.
As the blower runs constantly the standard Haith design houses this in an enclosure which reduces the noise output to 65-67 dBa at one metre.

Haith point out that the only one essential task to be performed by the operator is de-sludging of the primary tank, this will include the removal of the floating scum which if allowed to accumulate could overflow the scum board and carry into the SAF causing blockages resulting in the deterioration of final effluent quality.

Haith, have in all three different projects provided a package solution derived from their proven experience which considered construction optimisation, looked at operating experiences and evaluated cost reductions in relation to traditional solutions. They have provided a more suitable and competitive solution for small site applications than conventional sewage works designed in concrete.

Monday, November 07, 2005

first Birthday Reminder of azhar my lil kid

 
this is insa allah going to b my lil boys first birthday. pls, u all pepole, pray for his allround wellbeing and progress.i am a very forgetful person,thats why i am taking help of yahoo calender to remind me of things  i should remember like my  car number plate. that day i drove home another blue maruti car like mine home from the parking.on reaching home i sensed that this is not my car as the steeering wheel is different from mine.than i went back to the parking lot to return the car and take back my own.on seeing this the parking attendent fainted.well i used to say a lot of jokes, but this is not a joke.this is a real life exerience.u should have seen the face of the parking lot attendent.just imagine.....
LOL.
......saleem
Subject: Birthday Reminder

Birthday Reminder from the Calendar of saleemasraf
azhars birthday

Wednesday November 9, 2005
All Day
This event repeats every year.

Notes:
azhars birthday

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