Tuesday, May 24, 2005

hard disk bad sector problem, how to solve it?

saleemasraf (5:05:18 PM): do u know howw to repair a bad sector in a hard disk
sshaks (5:05:36 PM): u hv tools
sshaks (5:05:47 PM): give a search for disc utility tools in google
saleemasraf (5:06:01 PM): i know
saleemasraf (5:06:16 PM): but nasim panja told me to format and re partition
sshaks (5:06:32 PM): hmm ..
sshaks (5:06:42 PM): i dunno .. u will lose dta that way
saleemasraf (5:06:42 PM): those utilities according 2 him only hides d bad sectors
saleemasraf (5:06:47 PM): is that true
saleemasraf (5:07:08 PM): waise maine already format and partition kar diya hai
saleemasraf (5:07:15 PM): but bad sector increased
saleemasraf (5:07:20 PM): so kya kare
saleemasraf (5:07:35 PM): u r technical in this field
sshaks (5:07:41 PM): normally not .. how the whole thing works is this way
saleemasraf (5:07:49 PM): tell me now
saleemasraf (5:07:51 PM): ok
sshaks (5:07:52 PM): u have the physical hard disc
sshaks (5:08:06 PM): on it u have sectors to which the head writes
saleemasraf (5:08:10 PM): ok
sshaks (5:08:21 PM): on top of this u have a software driver which we call the file system
sshaks (5:08:34 PM): in ur PC it will be normally FAT32
saleemasraf (5:08:42 PM): yes
sshaks (5:08:55 PM): so this s/w knows what is written to what sector .. etc etc
sshaks (5:09:22 PM): now, when there is a bad sector, either the physical hard drive has a problem writing to the sector
saleemasraf (5:09:23 PM): go on pls
sshaks (5:09:49 PM): or the file system thinks there is something written there and doesn't overwrite it , or is prevented from over writing by other software etc etc
sshaks (5:10:02 PM): so if the physical hard disc has a problem, u can't repair it
saleemasraf (5:10:04 PM): hmmm
sshaks (5:10:17 PM): but if there is a s/w problem and the file system has some issues
sshaks (5:10:42 PM): then, reformatting (telling the file system that erase all ur pointers to the data and treat the disc as new) helps
saleemasraf (5:10:54 PM): ok
sshaks (5:11:23 PM): or else running a disc utility program which tries to write to tat sector inspite of errors and then reads back to see if its fine etc helps
sshaks (5:11:34 PM): so either way, it wud solve the problem
sshaks (5:11:52 PM): 1st try the disc utility since u won't lose data that way
saleemasraf (5:12:11 PM): inmy case after formating, and re partitioning the bad sector increased from two to twelve
sshaks (5:12:19 PM): otherwsie u will hv to backup all ur data to another Hard disc or burn CDs !
saleemasraf (5:12:19 PM): lol
saleemasraf (5:12:25 PM): now what u advice
sshaks (5:12:31 PM): if it doesn't help, format !
saleemasraf (5:12:35 PM): i have already losed my data
sshaks (5:12:44 PM): hehehe
sshaks (5:12:46 PM): ok!
saleemasraf (5:12:53 PM): BIG LOL
sshaks (5:13:00 PM): so formatting didn't help
saleemasraf (5:13:01 PM): nasim panja kahan ho tum
sshaks (5:13:05 PM): then run a disc utility
saleemasraf (5:13:07 PM): nope
saleemasraf (5:13:15 PM): u know any utility
sshaks (5:13:36 PM):
sshaks (5:13:40 PM): hvn't used it though
saleemasraf (5:13:45 PM): ok
saleemasraf (5:13:49 PM): i will try
saleemasraf (5:14:12 PM): how r u?
saleemasraf (5:14:17 PM): busy in office
sshaks (5:14:26 PM): i am fine
sshaks (5:14:33 PM): kinda



In computer science, a distributed system is an application that consists of components running on different computers concurrently. These components must be able to communicate and be designed to operate separately. As stated by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, "Distributed systems need radically different software than centralized systems do." The software he was discussing must be implemented in some form of distributed programming language.

Distributed computing is very attractive in part because interactive operation leaves most computers idle most of the time. The process which implements the distributed aspect — that is, one running on a machine normally devoted to other work — is usually specially designed to be a low priority process, using only computing power that would be wasted otherwise.

However, having a low-priority process constantly running prevents operating system power management routines from putting the processor into a low-power mode, resulting in increased electricity consumption. For some typically recent and high speed CPUs, the difference can be on the order of tens of watts for a single system.

Distributed computing is also an active area of computer science research with abundant literature. So promising is distributed computing technology that numerous US Department of Energy labs are linked for shared computational resources.


There are many different types of distributed computing systems and many challenges to overcome in successfully architecting one. The main goal of a distributed computing system is to connect users and resources in a transparent, open, and scalable way. Ideally this arrangement is drastically more fault tolerant and more powerful than many combinations of stand-alone computer systems.


An example of a distributed system is the World Wide Web. As you are reading a web page, you are actually using the distributed system that comprises the site. As you are browsing the web, your web browser running on your own computer communicates with different web servers that provide web pages. Possibly, your browser uses a proxy server to access the web contents stored on web servers faster and more securely. To find these servers, it also uses the distributed domain name system. Your web browser communicates with all of these servers over the Internet, via a system of routers which are themselves part of a large distributed routing system.


Openness is the property of distributed systems that measures the extent to which it offers a standardized interface that allows it to be extended and scaled. It is clear that a system that easily allows more computing entities to be plugged into it and more features to be easily added to it has an advantage over a perfectly closed and self-contained system.


Main article Scalability

A scalable system is one that can easily be altered to accommodate changes in the amount of users, resources and computing entities affected to it. Scalability can measured in three different dimensions:

  • Load scalability — A distributed system should make it easy for us to expand and contract its resource pool to accommodate heavier or lighter loads.
  • Geographic scalability — A geographically scalable system is one that maintains its usefulness and usability, regardless of how far apart its users or resources are.
  • Administrative scalability — No matter how many different organizations need to share a single distributed system, it should still be easy to use and manage.

Some loss of performance may occur in a system that allows itself to scale in one or more of these dimensions.

Multiprocessor systems

A multiprocessor system is simply a computer that has more than one CPU on its motherboard or inside its own die. If the operating system is built to take advantage of this, it can run different processes on different CPUs, or different threads belonging to the same process.

Over the years, many different multiprocessing options have been explored for use in distributed computing. CPUs can be connected by bus or switch networks, use shared memory or their own private RAM, or even a hybrid approach.

These days, multiprocessor systems are available commercially for end-users, and mainstream operating systems like Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows and Linux already have built-in support for this. Additionally, recent Intel CPUs have begun to employ a technology called Hyperthreading that allows more than one thread to run on the same CPU. Mac OS X has had this for some time.

Multicomputer systems

A multicomputer system is a system made up of several independent computers interconnected by a telecommunications network.

Multicomputer systems can be homogeneous or heterogeneous: A homogeneous distributed system is one where all CPUs are similar and are connected by a single type of network. They are often used for parallel computing which is a kind of distributed computing where every computer is working on different parts of a single problem.

In contrast a heterogeneous distributed system is one that can be made up of all sorts of different computers, eventually with vastly differing memory sizes, processing power and even basic underlying architecture. They are in widespread use today, with many companies adopting this architecture due to the speed with which hardware goes obsolete and the cost of upgrading a whole system simultaneously.


Various hardware and software architectures exist that are usually used for distributed computing. At a lower level, it is necessary to interconnect multiple CPUs with some sort of network, regardless of that network being printed onto a circuit board or made up of several loosely-coupled devices and cables. At a higher level, it is necessary to interconnect processes running on those CPUs with some sort of communication system.

  • Client-server — Smart client code contacts the server for data, then formats and displays it to the user. Input at the client is committed back to the server when it represents a permanent change.
  • 3-tier architecture — Three tier systems move the client intelligence to a middle tier so that stateless clients can be used. This simplifies application deployment. Most web applications are 3-Tier.
  • N-tier architecture — N-Tier refers typically to web applications which further forward their requests to other enterprise services. This type of application is the one most responsible for the success of application servers.
  • Tightly coupled (clustered) — refers typically to a set of highly integrated machines that run the same process in parallel, subdividing the task in parts that are made individually by each one, and then put back together to make the final result.
  • Peer-to-peer — an architecture where there is no special machine or machines that provide a service or manage the network resources. Instead all responsibilities are uniformly divided among all machines, known as peers.


Main article Parallel computing

Computing Taxonomies

The types of distributed computers are based on Flynn's taxonomy of systems; single instruction, single data (SISD), multiple instruction, single data (MISD), single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) and multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD). Other taxonomies and architectures availible at Computer architecture and in Category:Computer architecture.

Computer clusters

Main article Cluster computing

A cluster is multiple stand-alone machines acting in parallel across a local high speed network. Distributed computing differs from cluster computing in that computers in a distributed computing environment are typically not exclusively running "group" tasks, whereas clustered computers are usually much more tightly coupled. The difference makes distributed computing attractive because, when properly configured, it can use computational resources that would otherwise be unused. It can also make available computing resources which would otherwise be impossible.

The Second Life grid is a heterogeneous multicomputer and so are most Beowulf clusters.

Grid computing

Main article Grid computing

A grid consists of multiple computers sharing information over the Internet. Most use idle time on many thousands of computers throughout the world. Such arrangements permit handling of data that would otherwise require the power of expensive supercomputers or would have been impossible to analyze otherwise.

Distributed computing projects also often involve competition with other distributed systems. This competition may be for prestige, or it may be a means of enticing users to donate processing power to a specific project. For example, stat races are a measure of what the most distributed work a project has been able to compute over the past day or week. This has been found to be so important in practice that virtually all distributed computing projects offer online statistical analyses of their performances, updated at least daily if not in real-time.

See List of distributed computing projects for more information on specific projects.

See also

Distributed computing infrastructure

Distributed computing conferences and journals

Proprietary infrastructure

See also

External links

Monday, May 23, 2005

how to repair bad sector i n a hard disk

zaman_sn (6:50:37 PM): yes
saleemasraf (6:50:45 PM): hi
saleemasraf (6:50:49 PM): ki korisa
zaman_sn (6:50:51 PM): hi
saleemasraf (6:50:59 PM): bohiye thaka neki
zaman_sn (6:51:01 PM): eku nai kora
zaman_sn (6:51:16 PM): no slept
saleemasraf (6:51:20 PM): ok
saleemasraf (6:51:35 PM): can u tellme how to repair bad sector in hard disk
zaman_sn (6:51:47 PM): format it
saleemasraf (6:52:21 PM): than
zaman_sn (6:52:35 PM): there is a software also which hides the bad sector, but it is no good
zaman_sn (6:52:57 PM): formatting it will make new track
zaman_sn (6:53:40 PM): formtting is a good solution, but take back up of files
saleemasraf (6:53:49 PM): only formatting
zaman_sn (6:53:55 PM): yes
saleemasraf (6:53:55 PM): nothing else
saleemasraf (6:54:09 PM): no use of any software
saleemasraf (6:54:18 PM):
zaman_sn (6:54:26 PM): no nothing else. but what is d extent of damage?
saleemasraf (6:54:31 PM): pls view this url
saleemasraf (6:54:44 PM): only one point in drive d
saleemasraf (6:54:57 PM): i have two drives in d office computer
saleemasraf (6:55:01 PM): c &D
zaman_sn (6:55:25 PM): then just format
saleemasraf (6:56:06 PM): ok
saleemasraf (6:56:13 PM): have u seen d url
zaman_sn (6:56:23 PM): please wait
zaman_sn (6:58:23 PM): yes i have seen the site. that's what i was talkinmg about. this software hides the bad sector. just format ur hdd
zaman_sn (6:59:17 PM): but just download the software and see what is it.
saleemasraf (6:59:43 PM): ok
saleemasraf (7:00:12 PM): so just format
saleemasraf (7:00:14 PM): ok
zaman_sn (7:00:19 PM): yes
saleemasraf (7:00:23 PM): saah khala
zaman_sn (7:00:41 PM): nai khua. magribar pisat
saleemasraf (7:01:18 PM): magrib tu ki bastu
zaman_sn (7:02:14 PM): ye take nejane pai, urdut pachimak magrib buli koi
zaman_sn (7:03:33 PM): pachimat beli dubile aami namaz porhu
saleemasraf (7:03:44 PM): ye
saleemasraf (7:03:50 PM): hoi niki
zaman_sn (7:04:00 PM): hoi tu
saleemasraf (7:04:14 PM): moi ghori saihe namaz porhu
saleemasraf (7:04:24 PM): nohole azan huni
zaman_sn (7:05:11 PM): ghori sale namz porhib lahe neki? aazir pora moi ghorike nesao
saleemasraf (7:05:32 PM): bahut bhabi sinti likhisa dei
zaman_sn (7:05:39 PM): azn honi abasye namaz porhib pari
saleemasraf (7:06:06 PM): amar junab tuwe dawat thakile hunkalay azan diye
zaman_sn (7:06:21 PM): i am because i think
saleemasraf (7:06:21 PM): so cant trust him
zaman_sn (7:07:05 PM): bapre. ki modern junab
saleemasraf (7:07:22 PM): he also uses mobile and
saleemasraf (7:07:27 PM): oppps computerr
zaman_sn (7:07:46 PM): he belongs to post-modernism
saleemasraf (7:07:48 PM): and rides a viki
saleemasraf (7:08:03 PM): daari uri zai eke baray
saleemasraf (7:08:46 PM): assa,,,,  tupi pindhilay helmet pin dhibo lagay nay nalagay
zaman_sn (7:09:38 PM): our faith is not in our darhi, but in our inner self. only allah knows about the depth of our faith.
zaman_sn (7:10:13 PM): helmet pindha bhal. accident hole murtu sepeta huar bhoi nethake
zaman_sn (7:11:57 PM): hey
zaman_sn (7:12:09 PM): hey hey hey
zaman_sn (7:12:29 PM): ki hol? asa ne?
saleemasraf (7:13:56 PM): moi nai dey
saleemasraf (7:14:04 PM): saah khaboi loi jao
zaman_sn (7:14:44 PM): sahor logt ki khaba? sah dekhun comutrar usartukhaba para
saleemasraf (7:14:59 PM): tab
saleemasraf (7:15:20 PM): moi tabassum
zaman_sn (7:15:36 PM): ok hi tabbassum
saleemasraf (7:15:46 PM): kene asa
saleemasraf (7:16:06 PM): amar ghorot ahiba n4eki
zaman_sn (7:16:26 PM): bhal tumar ki khobor?
saleemasraf (7:16:29 PM): kuwa etiya
zaman_sn (7:16:37 PM): aahim
saleemasraf (7:16:40 PM): saah khini computer usorot loi anilu
saleemasraf (7:16:53 PM): aru aji ki korila din tu
zaman_sn (7:16:59 PM): nepelab kintu
zaman_sn (7:17:11 PM): nepalaba kintu
saleemasraf (7:17:11 PM): azan dilay
saleemasraf (7:17:19 PM): magribor kijani
zaman_sn (7:17:45 PM): magribar azan. hura guri sapriloi monot porise
saleemasraf (7:17:59 PM): moi hura guri dekha nai
zaman_sn (7:18:00 PM): eeyatu azan dile
saleemasraf (7:18:09 PM): handohor guri dekhisu
saleemasraf (7:18:19 PM): sauolor guri dekhisu
zaman_sn (7:18:50 PM): moioo nai dekha. pise hura guri sapori aaru magribar azan kiba meele

Re: hello rakib part 2

tumar mobilor secret tu moi kaku kuwa nai. khali netot dee deelu.
baki sab bhal ne.
compost prof sor jonor ki khobor. aji kaali three pit composting method ulaise.
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Friday, May 20, 2005 6:10 PM
Subject: Re: hello rakib part 2

hi bai and bhinty

         how r u    24 hrs net logala buli jani bor val palu
mother went 2 golaghat  yester day   i will go there on sunday  
 thurs day  birat akhan hungama hoi gophont kom   donot dis close
mai hunkala  mobil loi assu    saturaday  at 4.30p.m  satting korim  
at romance 20 yers  moi prof. log dorilu kali kom

Yahoo! India Matrimony: Find your life partner online.

Tuesday, May 03, 2005


smhsab: ki khobor
saleemasraf: hi
smhsab: hilloooooooooo
smhsab: how do do
smhsab: tomi kinekuwa
saleemasraf: fine
saleemasraf: aryu ji khobor
smhsab: gudy gudy
saleemasraf: ok
saleemasraf: so ur beti is in hostel
smhsab: ru tumar
saleemasraf: fine
smhsab: betaar naam ki dila
saleemasraf: doing forestry
saleemasraf: his name is azhar
saleemasraf: his photo is in my photo album
saleemasraf: pls visit my blog at
smhsab: blog kenekoi bonai
saleemasraf: easy
saleemasraf: u go to
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: creat ur account
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: rest automatic
smhsab: eurekaaaaaaaaaa
saleemasraf: yah
smhsab: yahooooooooooo
saleemasraf: yah yah
smhsab: cheeeeka bundaloooooooooo
saleemasraf: sokir pora pori jaba
saleemasraf: aram se
smhsab: nai moi bisonat he bohi asu
saleemasraf: thet tereki
smhsab: eta kotha jana
saleemasraf: bisona bhangibo etiya
saleemasraf: horu kalor kotha monot jarur asay
smhsab: moi jetia tom and jerry cartoon saun
saleemasraf: ok
smhsab: tumaloi monot pore
saleemasraf: muk ki buli bhaba
saleemasraf: tom ne jerry
smhsab: monot ase tumi aamak kiman tom and jerry stories koisila
saleemasraf: i think u resenmble tom
smhsab: ami mukh meli meli hunu
saleemasraf: aru makhi eta pet pai
saleemasraf: mukh melute melute
smhsab: =))
saleemasraf: hey
saleemasraf: bisona bhangibo etiya
saleemasraf: bhinti kot
smhsab: chinta nai
saleemasraf: kiyo
smhsab: fevicol ka jour hai
saleemasraf: jaroor tutega
smhsab: kya aaj kal fevicol naqli hai
saleemasraf: wah wah
saleemasraf: :D
saleemasraf: india bole toh
saleemasraf: even poison bhi nakli hai
smhsab: kya tabassum daur ke ayi
saleemasraf: suha kahan morta hai aaj kaal
saleemasraf: kya
smhsab: tabassum ye dekhne ayi hogi ki aaj itna chair ki tutne ki awaz kaha se aa rahi hai
saleemasraf: nah mah nah
saleemasraf: she is 2 smart
smhsab: aitu ki akou
saleemasraf: trying something new
smhsab: but she must have run hearing the sound
saleemasraf: yah
saleemasraf: yelling meri pepsi kisne piya
smhsab: are u laughing now?
saleemasraf: why
smhsab: huuuu ha ha ha haaaaaaaaaa
saleemasraf: should i laff
saleemasraf: bhutor hahi
smhsab: wait wait
smhsab: let me be prepared
saleemasraf: u still laff like that
smhsab: heeeeyyyyy
smhsab: u remember?
saleemasraf: ok
smhsab: yeah, but its more refined now
saleemasraf: ok
smhsab: and louder and more frightening then ever
saleemasraf: ok
smhsab: u know I am going to watch the movie " The incredible"
smhsab: have u seen the movie "Black"
saleemasraf: yah
saleemasraf: rani is better than amitabh
saleemasraf: see incredibles in hindi
smhsab: did u liked the film
saleemasraf: too serious
saleemasraf: not good if u r stressed out
smhsab: from 6th May there is flim festival in our club
saleemasraf: ok
smhsab: where 2 assamese, 2 hindi, 3 engllish and 1 bengali movie will be shown
saleemasraf: new assamese movies????
smhsab: don't know
saleemasraf: i brought seven assamese CDs to delhi this time
smhsab: wow
smhsab: new ones
saleemasraf: all are so funny
saleemasraf: yah one is new
saleemasraf: JAANMONI
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: than there is koboloi napai
saleemasraf: loti ghoti
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: now , nahid bhai wants a copy
smhsab: have u seen kadambori
saleemasraf: nah
saleemasraf: whats that
smhsab: who is nahid bhai
saleemasraf: jubir nahid
smhsab: oooooooooooooooo
saleemasraf: they are going to assam for his brothers marriage
smhsab: where do they stay
saleemasraf: nOOOOoooooOOOOOOoooooo
saleemasraf: rajouri garden
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: u remeber thta place
smhsab: ru feeding tabassum some rich food
smhsab: yeah I do
saleemasraf: have u heard from solomon
smhsab: wht
saleemasraf: he has a prob
smhsab: unable to contact them
saleemasraf: he stands all day
smhsab: what, he did not say anything
saleemasraf: noh are yaar
smhsab: then
saleemasraf: nothing seriuos
saleemasraf: has a boil in his tika
smhsab: wht happened?
smhsab: does he have back pain
smhsab: =))
saleemasraf: they have a mobile at home also
saleemasraf: do u have that no
smhsab: i HAVE THAT NO.
saleemasraf: 39500140
saleemasraf: relience no
smhsab: no, this was not the no.
saleemasraf: yah
saleemasraf: this is new
saleemasraf: and it stays with pehi
saleemasraf: solomon calls home ast this no
smhsab: something 8850 or so
saleemasraf: 9873028850 is solomons no
saleemasraf: he carries it with him
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: so they have two mobiles
saleemasraf: mera ek bhi nahin
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: :((
smhsab: wht happened to ur set
saleemasraf: woh toh antique piexce hai
smhsab: now I have to go, khana khana hai
smhsab: I have got one
saleemasraf: even nokia is surprised that i still havret that set
saleemasraf: ok
saleemasraf: bye
saleemasraf: keep me in mind in ur prayers
smhsab: ok
saleemasraf: tell tell bhinti my salam
smhsab: same 4 me 2
saleemasraf: yup
smhsab: yup
saleemasraf: feel good na
saleemasraf: talking after a long time
smhsab: love to kiddies and ur joon joni
smhsab: yaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
saleemasraf: tanvir of baby chats with me
saleemasraf: brettletan
saleemasraf: thats his ID
saleemasraf: bye
smhsab: he chats with me too

Monday, May 02, 2005


Finding the Evidence of your Purpose

Last issue I talked about how your purpose affects your experiences as
you go through life. This concept of your purpose influencing the
twists and turns of your life's path is critical to the method I'm going to
describe in this issue.

Most people's point of view is that the occurrences in their lives are
the result of some combination of chance and their own choices. While
in some sense this is true, it is also true to say that the occurrences
in your life are also the result of the influence of your purpose.

There are certain times in people's lives when the barrier between them
and their purpose is very thin. When everything is going along pretty
well and they are really busy, the barrier is usually very thick. Here
are some examples of times when the barrier to your purpose is at its

- When you are doing something that is aligned with your purpose, this
usually causes an experience of greater passion, meaning, or
"rightness." This will happen even if you don't know what your purpose is. This
is the method employed in my first e-book.

- During times of great crisis, some people experience an eerie sense
of calm. They may also have the experience of being advised or guided
by something they can't necessarily understand or name.

- During peak experiences, people sometimes have flashes of insight or
knowing that reveal aspects of their purpose. This can happen during a
religious experience, a psychological or emotional breakthrough, sex,
or spontaneous moments with no apparent cause.

It is possible to piece together information received in this manner to
get a pretty good idea of what your purpose is. It is also possible to
gather information from your life and professional choices and use that
to gain insight into your purpose. More on that in the next issue!