Saturday, December 31, 2005

The Secret of Success

Thursday, December 01, 2005
The Secret of Success
Commenters on my previous post have correctly pointed out that a logic puzzle is probably a weak indicator of VC skills. So what is a strong indicator of success? The question reminded me of an encounter in 1990...

The first person I ever met from Bessemer was Neill Brownstein, one of Silicon Valley's pioneer venture capitalists (with investments like Ungermann Bass, Telenet, Maxim, Veritas and BusinessLand). At that interview, he asked me this question:

What do you think is the most common trait among successful venture capitalists?

I thought hard, trying to impress him. "Deep industry domain knowledge."

"No," he said.

"Um, analytical skills?"


Uh oh, I started grasping. "Rich network of contacts? Operating experience? Engineering background? Financial background? Skepticism? Patience? Sense of Urgency? Salesmanship? Decisiveness?" (the last of which I clearly didn't display)


"I give up. What is it?"


I have since followed Neill's advice.

Coincidentally, the second most important factor, I now believe, is a strong, stable platform with great mentors (like Neill and Felda) and smart partners.

Thursday, December 22, 2005

BBC E-mail: Role model overcoming hardships
----- Original Message -----
From: "Syeda Jebeen S . Shah" Subject: BBC E-mail: Role model overcoming

Syeda Jebeen S. Shah saw this story on BBC News Online and thought you
should see it.

** Message **
I thought of sharing this with you all.

** Role model overcoming hardships **
Debabani Majumdar reports on the Bihar girl flown to London to address a
Unicef conference.
< >

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Choose the news and sport headlines you want - when you want them, all
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Thursday, December 15, 2005


Why would I want to Zero Fill my drive?

The most common reasons to Zero Fill an ATA (IDE) hard drive are:
  1. The drive has contracted a virus that cannot be removed without destroying the boot sector.

  2. You are changing from one operating system to another and wish to remove everything from the drive.

The download routine for DiscWizard Starter Edition creates a bootable diskette. Boot from the diskette to start DiscWizard Starter Edition. After startup, select Utilities | Zero Fill Drive (Quick) or Zero Fill Drive (Full). Select the drive you want to erase, then select Zero Fill or Low Level.

Zero Fill Drive (Quick) will write over the beginning of the drive which includes the critical partition information, eliminating all partitions and information on the drive including the Master boot record. This is useful if you have a drive that has a corrupted partition or that you wish to erase to reinstalll a fresh operating system and new data.

Zero Fill Drive (Full) will write over the entire data area of the drive. This is useful if a drive has bad sectors that cannot be fixed by the operating system. This will also erase all the data on the drive, but it will take several hours.

When the process completes, reboot the system from the operating system install CD and follow the instructions to prepare (partition and format) the drive and install the operating system.



Tuesday, December 13, 2005


The 10 faces of innovation

Tom Kelley with Jonathan Littman, FastCompany | December 13, 2005

We've all been there: the pivotal meeting in which you push forward a new idea or proposal you're passionate about. A fast-paced discussion leads to an upwelling of support that seems about to reach critical mass. And then in one disastrous moment, your hopes are dashed when someone weighs in with those fateful words: "Let me just play devil's advocate for a minute. . ."

Having invoked the awesome protective power of that seemingly innocuous phrase, the speaker now feels entirely free to take potshots at your idea and does so with impunity. Because he's not really your harshest critic. Instead, he's essentially saying, "The devil made me do it." Devil's advocates remove themselves from the equation and sidestep individual responsibility for the verbal attack. But before they're done, they've torched your fledgling concept.

The devil's-advocate gambit is extraordinary but certainly not uncommon since it strikes so regularly in the project rooms and boardrooms of corporate America. What's truly astonishing is how much punch is packed into that simple phrase.

In fact, the devil's advocate may be the biggest innovation killer in America today. What makes this negative persona so dangerous is that it is such a subtle threat. Every day, thousands of great new ideas, concepts, and plans are nipped in the bud by devil's advocates.

Why is this persona so damning? Because a devil's advocate encourages idea wreckers to assume the most negative possible perspective, one that sees only the downside, the problems, the disasters-in-waiting. Once those floodgates open, they can drown a new initiative in negativity.

Why should you care? And why do I believe this problem is so important? Because innovation is the lifeblood of all organisations, and the devil's advocate is toxic to your cause. This is no trivial matter. There is no longer any serious debate about the primacy of innovation in the health and future strength of an organisation.

As the general manager of Ideo, I have worked with clients from Singapore to San Francisco to Sao Paulo, and witnessed firsthand how innovation has become recognised as a pivotal management tool across virtually all industries and market segments.

And while we at Ideo used to spend the majority of our time in the world of product-based innovation, we have more recently come around to seeing innovation as a tool for transforming the entire culture of organisations. Sure, a great product can be one important element in the formula for business success, but companies that want to succeed today need much more.

They need innovation at every point of the compass, in all aspects of the business, and in every team member.

Building an environment fully engaged in positive change, and a culture rich in creativity and renewal, means creating a company with 360 degrees of innovation. And companies that want to succeed at innovation will need new insights, new viewpoints, and new roles.

All good working definitions of innovation pair ideas with action, the spark with the fire. Innovators don't just have their heads in the clouds. They also have their feet on the ground.

The company 3M, one of the first to fully embrace innovation as the essence of its corporate brand, defines it as "new ideas--plus action or implementation--which result in an improvement, a gain, or a profit." It is not enough to just have a good idea.

Only when you act, when you implement, do you truly innovate. Ideas. Action. Implementation. Gain. Profit.

All good words, of course, but there's still one piece left out. People. That's why I prefer the InnovationNetwork consultancy's definition: "People implementing new ideas that create value."

The classic 3M definition might leave you with the impression that, as a bumper sticker might put it, "Innovation Happens." But unfortunately, there's no spontaneous combustion in the business world. Innovation is definitely not self-starting or self-perpetuating.

People make it happen through their imagination, willpower, and perseverance. And whether you are a team member, a group leader, or an executive, your only real path to innovation is through people. You can't really do it alone.

Innovation is all about people. It is about the roles people can play, the hats they can put on, the personas they can adopt. It is not just about the luminaries of innovation like Thomas Edison, or celebrity CEOs like Steve Jobs and Jeff Immelt.

It is about the unsung heroes who work on the front lines of entrepreneurship in action, the countless people and teams who make innovation happen day in and day out.

At Ideo, we've developed 10 people-centric tools, talents, or personas for innovation. Although the list does not presume to be comprehensive, it does aspire to expand your repertoire. We've found that adopting one or more of these roles can help teams express a different point of view and create a broader range of innovative solutions.

And by adopting some of these innovation personas, you'll have a chance to put the devil's advocate in his place. So when someone says, "Let me play devil's advocate for a minute" and starts to smother a fragile new idea, someone else in the room may be emboldened to speak up and say, "Let me be an anthropologist for a moment, because I personally have watched our customers suffering silently with this issue for months, and this new idea just might help them."

And if that one voice gives courage to others, maybe someone else will add, "Let's think like an experimenter for a moment. We could prototype this idea in a week and get a sense of whether we're onto something good."

The devil's advocate may never go away, but on a good day, the 10 personas can keep him in his place. Or tell him to go to hell.

The learning personas

Individuals and organisations need to constantly gather new sources of information in order to expand their knowledge and grow, so the first three personas are learning roles. These personas are driven by the idea that no matter how successful a company currently is, no one can afford to be complacent.

The world is changing at an accelerated pace, and today's great idea may be tomorrow's anachronism. The learning roles help keep your team from becoming too internally focused and remind the organisation not to be so smug about what you know.

People who adopt the learning roles are humble enough to question their own worldview, and in doing so, they remain open to new insights every day.

1. The Anthropologist brings new learning and insights into the organisation by observing human behavior and developing a deep understanding of how people interact physically and emotionally with products, services, and spaces.

When an Ideo human-factors person camps out in a hospital room for 48 hours with an elderly patient undergoing surgery, she is living the life of the anthropologist and helping to develop new health-care services.

2. The Experimenter prototypes new ideas continuously, learning by a process of enlightened trial and error. The Experimenter takes calculated risks to achieve success through a state of "experimentation as implementation."

When BMW bypassed all its traditional advertising channels and created theater-quality short films for, no one knew whether the experiment would succeed. Its runaway success underscores the rewards that flow to Experimenters.

3. The Cross-Pollinator explores other industries and cultures, then translates those findings and revelations to fit the unique needs of your enterprise.

An open-minded Japanese businesswoman was taken with the generic beer she found in a US supermarket. She brought the idea home, and it eventually became the "no brand" Mujirushi Ryohin chain, a 300-store, billion-dollar retail empire. That's the leverage of a Cross-Pollinator.

The organising personas

The next three personas are organising roles, played by individuals who are savvy about the often counterintuitive process of how organisations move ideas forward. At Ideo, we used to believe that the ideas should speak for themselves.

Now we understand what the Hurdler, the Collaborator, and the Director have known all along: that even the best ideas must continuously compete for time, attention, and resources.

Those who adopt these organising roles don't dismiss the process of budget and resource allocation as "politics" or "red tape." They recognize it as a complex game of chess, and they play to win.

4. The Hurdler knows that the path to innovation is strewn with obstacles and develops a knack for overcoming or outsmarting those roadblocks. When the 3M worker who invented masking tape decades ago had his idea initially rejected, he refused to give up.

Staying within his $100 authorisation limit, he signed a series of $99 purchase orders to pay for critical equipment needed to produce the first batch. His perseverance paid off, and 3M has reaped billions of dollars in cumulative profits because an energetic Hurdler was willing to bend the rules.

5. The Collaborator helps bring eclectic groups together, and often leads from the middle of the pack to create new combinations and multidisciplinary solutions. Not long ago, Kraft Foods and Safeway sat down to figure out how to knock down the traditional walls between supplier and retailer.

One strategy--a way to streamline the transfer of goods from one to the other--didn't just save labor and carrying costs. The increased efficiency sent sales of Capri Sun juice drinks, for example, soaring by 167% during one promotion.

6. The Director not only gathers together a talented cast and crew but also helps to spark their creative talents. When a creative Mattel executive assembles an ad hoc team of designers and project leaders, sequesters them for 12 weeks, and ends up with a new $100 million girls'-toy platform in three months, she is a role model for Directors everywhere.

The building personas

The four remaining personas are building roles that apply insights from the learning roles and channel the empowerment from the organising roles to make innovation happen.

When people adopt the building personas, they stamp their mark on your organisation. People in these roles are highly visible, so you'll often find them right at the heart of the action.

7. The Experience Architect designs compelling experiences that go beyond mere functionality to connect at a deeper level with customers' latent or expressed needs. When Cold Stone Creamery turns the preparation of a frozen dessert into a fun, dramatic performance, it is designing a successful new customer experience.

The premium prices and marketing buzz that follow are rewards associated with playing the role of the Experience Architect.

8. The Set Designer creates a stage on which innovation team members can do their best work, transforming physical environments into powerful tools to influence behavior and attitude. Companies such as Pixar and Industrial Light & Magic recognize that the right office environments can help nourish and sustain a creative culture.

When the Cleveland Indians discovered a renewed winning ability in a brand-new stadium, they demonstrated the value of the Set Designer. Organisations that tap into the power of the Set Designer sometimes discover remarkable performance improvements that make all the space changes worthwhile.

9. The Caregiver builds on the metaphor of a health-care professional to deliver customer care in a manner that goes beyond mere service. Good Caregivers anticipate customer needs and are ready to look after them. When you see a service that's really in demand, there's usually a Caregiver at the heart of it.

Best Cellars, a retailer that takes the mystery and snobbery out of wine and makes it simple and fun, is demonstrating the Caregiver role--while earning a solid profit at the same time.

10. The Storyteller builds both internal morale and external awareness through compelling narra-tives that communicate a fundamental human value or reinforce a specific cultural trait. Companies from Dell to Starbucks have lots of corporate legends that support their brands and build camaraderie within their teams.

Medtronic, celebrated for its product innovation and consistently high growth, reinforces its culture with straight-from-the-heart storytelling--patients' firsthand narratives of how the products changed or even saved their lives.

Note: The appeal of the personas is that they work. Not in theory or in the classroom but in the unforgiving marketplace. Ideo has battle-tested them thousands of times in a real-world laboratory for innovation.

The personas are about "being innovation" rather than merely "doing innovation." Take on one or more of these roles, and you'll be taking a conscious step toward becoming more of an innovator in your daily life.

Adapted with permission from The Ten Faces of Innovation, by Tom Kelley with Jonathan Littman, to be published October 18 by Currency Books, a division of Random House Inc.

Sunday, December 04, 2005

How to achieve excellence

Delegation is a process beyond mere manuals. It needs to be practiced for perfection. Effective delegation creates speed for the organisation, self development for superiors and high motivation for subordinates.

At Birla Cellulosic, we drew up an ambitious plan for achieving excellence. It involved transforming all the business processes into the best in the world, winning all the national quality awards and winning the coveted Deming Prize within a time period of three years. In addition we wanted to accomplish this without any external consultant.

The first step towards this goal involved putting together a core team of exceptional achievers from various departments. I was part of this team. My co-team members included individuals from different parts of the organisation.

This team was expected to facilitate the achievement of excellence in all business processes cutting across the organisation and even beyond. As the team leader I had some initial discussions with various organisations that had implemented the process.

This made me realise that such a transformation was never done without an external consultant. Hence the task became tougher and we began with a lot of anxiety and misgivings.

This article is an account of how the challenges faced by us were shared, analyzed and developed into a methodology of delegation. Today many of the team members are heading different departments at various companies.

I myself have shifted to Jubilant Organosys Limited, Noida. Sameer Desai is now with Acrylic Fibre Division in Egypt. Sanjeev Kullu works in the technical MIS and Ashok Kakadia has now moved to Reliance Industries, Hazira. And Mitul Desai currently heads the quality division at Birla Cellousic. Ravi Sharma, Charulata Joshi, Deepak Pandey and Mahesh Agrwal were the other members of the team. We also had two associate members, Ravi Yadav and Sanjay Pandhre.

Each member of the team contributed significantly and was critical in the creation and execution of the methodology. We realised its benefits and therefore, while heading departments at various places across the globe today, we still practice it.

The climb uphill

The first big challenge was in the genesis of the team itself. I had to lead a team of exceptional achievers of which some members had worked in positions senior to me. So a soft issue of ego clash existed and had to be managed carefully.

Other direct challenges for the team were to design a working model of excellence, help various process owners to align their working towards it and ensure improvement in performance.

Indirect challenges came in the form of all types of technical, cultural and political resistances. These challenges and their changing forms required quick and mid term adjustment in the road map.

To summarise the situation, unclear mid-term targets resulting in a hazy strategy demanded extraordinary flexibility and speed. I realised that I was the bottleneck by virtue of my position as well as expertise.

The team members were experts in their work areas, but expectations from them on the excellence model were different and were known only to me. Hence on a typical day, team members would complete their assignments and wait to meet me to discuss issues. I wished to apply the queuing theory in this situation and also considered opening another discussion forum simultaneously. This required another leader. This thought of creating more of me led to the development of the delegation methodology.

Analysing these challenges I realised that there were three distinct factors that were critical for the success of the project:

  • need to accomplish more activities per day
  • space and time for the team leader to think and strategize for the long term and ensure development of individuals
  • high motivational levels for all the team members

In search of effective delegation

Having identified the challenges and success factors I discussed them with the team. It was then decided to resolve these problems first and only then proceed with the actual project.

The issue was discussed with key people in the organisation and interestingly most of them identified it as a 'delegation' issue. Everyone was clear that it could be resolved through effective delegation.

But when it came to the actual implementation all of them had a certain level of discomfort. So our next step was to refer to the company's delegation manual. But we found that this manual focused on financial independence and resources such as people, assets and procedures were considered irrelevant for execution of responsibilities.

Hence the purpose of these manuals or policies did not match the challenges and critical success factors of the team.

At the same time, the team agreed more independence at various jobs should address these challenges. Accordingly, a survey was conducted and fifty employees across various levels were inter-viewed.

The survey revealed that the independence felt by them varied drastically. Although financial independence was followed strictly, control over actual performance of activities was different across the organisation.

Managers who had perceptions of less independence typically focused their discussions on excessive controls exercised by their superiors on their day-to-day activities. When actions were dependent on instructions, managers were unable to use authority.

They felt that their bosses were able to delegate responsibilities easily, but assigning equivalent authority was a rarity. Further, some employees felt that their bosses lacked understanding on equating responsibilities with authority.

Interestingly, almost 90 per cent of subordinates were not happy with the situation although they felt that the delegation manual was adequately drafted.

On the other hand, the department heads felt that exercising controls ensured effective monitoring. Ultimately, performance of activities was directly related to meeting targets. A subordinate who did not perform well could directly affect the actual performance of the department head. Some department heads also felt that sometimes delegated authority was misused.

This created bigger problems for them and therefore they felt that doing anything beyond the present delegation manual could be fatal. At the same time, the same individual who advocated control over his subordinate was frustrated by the intervention of his boss.

This led us to conclude that the viewpoints of both the superior and the subordinate were valid. The confusion was genuine and it became necessary for us to understand what would be the 'ideal state of delegation' in the organisation.

What is effective delegation?

The analysis of the survey and the subsequent discussion among team members clearly revealed the stages of delegation. Delegation was intended when actions were monitored as a part of training. In this case there was a clear communication that if the employee learned to perform the task efficiently he would then be empowered to implement it in the absence of his boss.

When actions were not monitored and results were the focus, then delegation was good. When parameters were not considered and only deviations were monitored, delegation was most effective. To our surprise we found that this was beyond the scope of the delegation manual and was a skill that needed continuous honing.

The cycle of delegating effectively

The team understood that delegation was necessary but at the same time if it was not done effectively it would hamper the performance of the whole team. Hence it was essential to establish a process of continuous delegation, issue by issue. This would not only make the transition smooth but also help in delegation of new responsibilities that would get added on subsequently.

We also felt that an element of standardisation to reduce time as well as individual dependence was necessary. After many experiments and iterations we developed the following eight-step cycle that proved to be highly effective.

Step 1: Identify the strengths of your subordinates

Each individual has a distinct characteristic, which is effective in a particular situation. So apply the strength of a person to the right situation. There are various methods of identifying strengths in subordinates:

  • Visible performance: when a person joins the department, he starts working in his areas of interest. His initial performance in these areas of interest directly indicates his inherent strengths.
  • Past experience: past experience with an individual can be used to identify areas of performance and assess strengths.
  • Discussion with a reference: with a new employee, discussions with an earlier supervisor or references is an effective method of identifying his strengths.
  • Assigning sample jobs: a variety of small jobs requiring different skills can be given to an individual to identify his strength.
  • Victory parade: this unique practice in many organisations has a high potential to improve delegation. Although this exercise was intended to improve team working, it helped significantly in identifying the perceived strengths of all team members. In this exercise each member, based on his experiences, identifies and lists the strengths of other team members including the leader. A forum is then organised to reveal the strengths of each member. A list of strengths is displayed in the working area of the team after every such exercise

Step 2: Assign jobs as per strengths

This step requires a change in the mindset as the focus of the team leader has to shift from 'identifying the gaps' to 'assigning jobs based on possible achievements'. Feedback has to change from 'you need to improve' to 'well done' or 'I know you are the best and will continue to be'.

But how do you know whether you have identified the strength correctly? If the team member shows willingness to do the task, is not tired after completing the task, shows improvement every time, uses creative methods to make things better and performs at a level higher than his boss on the specific job, it means that you have identified his strength correctly.

Interestingly, in around 80 per cent of activities, effective delegation resulted in subordinates achieving skill levels that were higher than the team leader's own skills.

Step 3: Insist on documenting plans and activities

A vital feature of this step is to develop a checklist for tasks that will be used in the future. If the task was performed earlier the old checklist should be given and the team member should be asked to further enhance its contents. This not only ensures continuous improvement, it also minimises efforts every time.

While assigning the job, insist on developing an activity schedule. The most critical input of the team leader at this stage is to help members identify their activities.

Step 4: Standardise checklists and shift activities horizontally

Each checklist, developed in step 03, should be controlled with proper coding (may require a separate document control system if the company is not ISO certified). Whenever a task is repeated, a clear insistence on observing the checklist should be made. If the checklist needs improvement, activities should be added or removed with consent from the team leader and members. This process of firming checklists, controlled changes to the checklists and removal of obsolete checklists is called standardisation.

The weakest link of effective delegation is standardisation. Mostly supervisors get trapped in daily fire fighting due to their inability to standardise. Japanese companies have become world leaders primarily by standardisation. Standardisation ensures consistency as well as effective delegation and therefore needs extensive focus.

Step 5: Encourage teamwork through the 'project leader' concept

Unfortunately, due to hierarchical working system, team members expect a lot of support from the leader. Usually sub-ordinates do not believe that they are more proficient than their leaders in certain areas.

This in fact is the basic requirement for team working and effective delegation. Hence members should be given control of projects to further sharpen their skills and develop leadership qualities. Obviously, authority should be given based on their individual strengths.

The biggest benefit of this process is identification of new areas of interest and potential strengths' of individuals. It also gives a sense of accomplishment to the project leader and hence energizes him to perform better.

Step 6: Create measures of performance

This step involves identifying measures of performance at each stage. Deviations from norms (control limits) indicate the need for intervention of a superior. This step also requires a keen interest from the team leader in identifying what to measure.

Changing from activity monitoring to granting independence is difficult, as it requires identification of some parameters, which can indicate that performance is yielding results.

This step is the most critical step and team leaders may need specific training inputs and practice to develop this.

As delegation improves, the team leader's involvement in various activities reduces. But given today's volatile environment performances vary with speed. This may result in fluctuating performance levels over a period of time in various areas.

To avoid this fluctuation, it is essential for the team leader and other experts to provide inputs, whenever there is the possibility of a drop in performance.

For example, if a maintenance supervisor is able to answer the question 'what if I do not do this', for each checkpoint of planned maintenance checklist, the various measurables will be revealed. This needs to be done exhaustively before the supervisor completely delegates the maintenance activities.

The measurable will be effective if it is able to indicate the performance of a delegated activity. Since there is some lag in conversion of strengths into a skill, initial monitoring will be required. As the skill level improves, monitoring levels should reduce by design. An important factor that has to be taken into account is the fact that establishing monitoring systems requires a lot of effort. But changing them later requires even greater effort.

Step 7: Develop hierarchical measures of performance

It is the duty of the superior to delegate as well as encourage his team members to further delegate. This effective delegation will result in development of measures of performance at all levels, which are interlinked.

Step 8: Go back to step 01

In this step the process of identifying strengths continues and the delegation cycle becomes continuous. This is therefore not only a delegation cycle but an improvement cycle also. Each cycle means one more activity standardised and delegated.

Performance feedback and effective delegation

It is important to provide continuous feedback to team members on their progress and guide them towards higher performance. But, the area where most team leaders fail is in consolidating these inputs on a periodic basis. This results in an inability of the team member to perform at high levels in the leaders absence.

So, it is absolutely necessary for the team leader to spend time with each team member to take stock of performance. He should discuss the member's achievement, distinct strengths displayed, areas of interest and performance against agreed result areas (along with feedback for deviations).

Preferably, this should be recorded and the company's expectations from the employee should be clearly communicated to him.

Ultimately, at the end of the year, the leader should rate his team members based on the strengths they have acquired and the results that they have delivered.

Plan your substitutes and tell them

The thought of losing authority with delegation in managers is strong. This welds them to their position and limits progress. To avoid falling into this trap, a leader should plan for succession.

He should ideally communicate to one of his team member the skills required to substitute his job. The leader should sit with his boss and an expert from the HR department and discuss his job profile.

He should combine their inputs into a skill set and document it. This document should be given to the possible successor and the leader should support, encourage and motivate him to achieve the skill set.

To conclude, you can grow only if you ensure both the growth of your subordinates and the sustainability of processes in the organisation. This method of delegation does both.

Re: email address of Architects of NCR DElhi

----- Original Message -----
From: "Amita Gupta" <>
To: "saleem" <>
Sent: Friday, December 02, 2005 4:34 AM
Subject: Re: email address of Architects of NCR DElhi

> --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> ----------------------
> Respond in TEXT mode only ! No File Attachments, Please !!
> --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> ----------------------
> 011-28311623
> 0 9891565513
> 0 9891026578
> --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> ----------------------
> B H A R A T C O M P U T E R S
> the DATABASE People ....
> 4/11, JAIDEV PARK, NEW DELHI - 110026.
> --------------------------------------------------------------------------
> -----------------------
> Nov 2005
> --------------------------------------------------------------------------
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> DATABASE-NAME Entries Price
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Friday, December 02, 2005

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Wednesday, November 30, 2005

TEAM (TERI Enhanced Acidification and Methanation) process Bio gas plant
Magnitude of waste and potential for energy recovery
Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations across the globe. The daily per capita solid waste generated in India ranges from about 100 g in small towns to 500 g in large towns. It takes anywhere between three and seven days for the waste to be disposed from the time of its generation. Major portion of the collected waste is dumped in landfill sites. The recyclable content of waste ranges from about 13% to 20%. In a developing country like India, paper, plastic, glass, rubber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals – all the material that can be recycled are salvaged from this waste to produce low-cost products extensively used by the lower-income groups of the society. However, data collected from 44 Indian cities have revealed that about 70% of them do not have adequate capacity for collection and transportation of MSW (municipal solid waste) (Pachauri and Sridharan 1998). The uncollected waste that usually finds its way in sewers is eaten by the cattle, or left to rot in the open, or burnt on roadsides.
In the face of burgeoning urban populations and growing mounds of garbage, initiatives like converting garbage into energy could show the way for cities. A private company has begun converting the city's garbage into fuel pellets and now plans to establish a 10 MW power plant. According to TIFAC (Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council), Delhi, Mumbai, and Calcutta would be generating 5000 tonnes of garbage every day, in about a decade, and disposal would be difficult. The existing dumping years would create enormous pollution and health hazards. Municipal authorities would find it expensive to transport garbage and dispose it of scientifically, according to a TIFAC data sheet on 'Fuel pellets from municipal waste'. As part of a pilot project for integrated waste management, the Department of Science and Technology had established a prototype fuel pelletization plant at Deonar, Mumbai, in the early 1990s. The plant was designed to process Indian garbage. The garbage was first dried to bring down the high moisture levels. Sand, grit, and other incombustible matter were then mechanically separated before the garbage was compacted and converted into pellets. Fuel pellets have several distinct advantages over coal and wood, according to the TIFAC data sheet. It is cleaner, free from incombustibles, has lower ash and moisture contents, is of uniform size, cost-effective, and eco-friendly (The Hindu, 2 May 2000).
In addition to MSW, large quantity of waste, in both solid and liquid forms, is generated by the industrial sector like breweries, sugar mills, distilleries, food-processing industries, tanneries, and paper and pulp industries. Out of the total pollution contributed by industrial subsectors, 40% to 45% of the total pollutants can be traced to the processing of industrial chemicals and nearly 40% of the total organic pollution to the food products industry alone. Food products and agro-based industries together contribute 65% to 70% of the total industrial waste water in terms of organic load (Pachauri and Sridharan 1998a). Table 1 gives an estimate of waste generated in India by various sectors and industries.
Table 1 Estimated quantity of waste generated in India
Municipal solid waste
27.4 million tonnes/year
Municipal liquid waste (121 class I and II cities)
12145 million litres/day
Distillery (243 nos)
8057 kilo litres/day
9 million tonnes/year
Food and fruit processing waste
4.5 million tonnes/year
Willow dust
30000 tonnes/year
Dairy industry waste (COD level 2 kg/m3)
50–60 million litres/day
Paper and pulp industry waste (300 mills)
1600 m3 waste water/day
Tannery (2000 nos)
52500 m3 waste water/day
Source Bakthavatsalam (1999)
In addition, the daily per capita sewage generation is about 150 litres. The total sewage generated in India, about 5 billion litres/day in 1947, grew to 30 billion litres/day in 1997. However, the total treatment capacity available is only about 10% of this quantum generated. It is estimated that under the Ganga Action Plan, 46 000 Nm3 (normal cubic metre) of biogas can be produced daily from the sewage treatment plants in 21 Indian cities by treating about 339 million litres/day of municipal waste water. This, with appropriate biogas power plants, will generate total electrical energy of 99 450 kWh/day (Singh 1996).
The urban municipal waste (both solid and liquid) – industrial waste coming from dairies, distilleries, pressmud, tanneries, pulp and paper, and food processing industries, etc., agro waste and biomass in different forms – if treated properly, has a tremendous potential for energy generation as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Estimated renewable energy potential in India
Energy source
Estimated potential
Bio energy
17000 MW
Draught animal power
30000 MW
Energy from MSW
1000 MW
Biogas plants
12 million plants
Source Bakthavatsalam (1999)
Options for waste management
Last year, the INSWAREB (Institute of Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance) came up with the theory that rice husk, a cheap by-product of paddy milling, has the potential to galvanize the electricity-starved rural India. With a gross calorific value of 3000 kcal/kg, rice husk, capable of high-efficiency combustion, could serve as the fuel for mini power plants of 1 to 2 MW capacity that can be set up in rural areas. The RHA (rice husk ash), obtained as a by-product by burning it, can generate power in the process.
The cost of establishing and maintaining the mini power plant can be easily made good by exporting RHA, which can fetch $50 a tonne. INSWAREB has drawn an action plan for promoting RHA fully exploiting its export potential. It proposes to initiate a couple of mini power plants to popularize the theme. (The Hindu, 9 February 1999).
Similarly, at an inter-ministerial meeting involving the ministries of power, environment and forests, and urban affairs and employment, it was decided to encourage the use of fly ash bricks in all construction activities. The NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) had thought of setting up two fly ash brick manufacturing plants at Badarpur and Dadri near Delhi; the theory being that fly ash, apart from being used as a substitute for bricks, could also be utilized for the embankment of roads.
The enormous amount of ash generated in Indian thermal power stations poses a serious threat to the environment. In principle, this problem can be tackled by using fly ash in building construction. Increased awareness and use of fly ash bricks, which is stronger (100 kg/cm2 compared to 50–75 kg/cm2 of conventional bricks) and smoother on the sides (reducing plastering costs significantly), can provide an eco-friendly solution. Fly ash bricks are better than traditional bricks in the sense also that ash bricks do not use the top fertile soil of the earth, thus protecting the land from agricultural use. Located at the south-east corner of Delhi, the BTPS (Badarpur Thermal Power Station) meets more than 25% of the energy consumption of the capital. It also produces a staggering amount of ash every day (almost 5000 tonnes). The station has, however, been making concrete efforts in ash utilization as a responsible corporate citizen. It has given a major thrust in ash utilization through the manufacture of bricks from fly ash. At present, it has seven units given to private contractors, which manufacture around 16 000 bricks every day. The BTPS had installed a pilot-cum-demonstration plant at its ash dyke way back in 1993. The station adopted the FAL-G technology for the manufacture of ash bricks, which does not require firing or autoclaving. These bricks require natural drying and hence are totally energy-efficient and environment-friendly (The Financial Express, 4 April 1999).
It was also estimated that an energy-from-waste plant, which was to be set up in Scotland, would annually convert 120 000 tonnes of the city's municipal and commercial waste into electricity. It as also to deal with small amounts of non-hazardous clinical and liquid wastes. Besides generating adequate electricity for the plant's in-house needs of around 2.2 MW, it would sell 8.3 MW to the National Grid, electricity distribution network of UK. The facility incorporated two separate systems – fuel processing and combustion.
To produce the fuel, incoming waste is fed into one of the two hammer mills, where it is shredded into coarse floc material. Each of the mills handles 30 tonnes of waste an hour, almost double the plant's throughput of 15.6 tonnes an hour. The over-capacity allows for unplanned downtime. Magnets remove ferrous materials before the floc is carried by conveyor to a fuel-storage building capable of holding enough for two days’ operation—about 800 tonnes of refuse-derived fuel (The Hindu, 21 October 1999).

Role of the scientists
Scientists have developed a technique to treat foul-smelling polluted distillery wastes, using energy from the sun and a chemical catalyst. Tests on a small laboratory-type reactor showed that the method can detoxify 100 litres of diluted distillery waste water in five days. Results of the project at the NARI (Nimbkar Agriculture Research Institute) at Phaltan in Maharashtra were submitted to the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources). The scientists had applied for a patent on the chemical catalyst. The emphasis after this was to try to improve the technique so that waste treatment is over in just two days. The NARI scientists had taken cues from work on solar detoxification of ground-water and industrial wastes using titanium dioxide catalyst.
By purifying biogas produced from distillery wastes, scientists claimed to have generated huge quantities of com-pressed methane, a gas with immense potential as an alternative source of vehicle fuel. Experimenting with bulk distillery wastes from alcohol manufacturing breweries, researchers from the chemical engineering department of the Jadavpur University produced the gas by a process called biomethanation of the effluents. The process, which also cuts down on the environment pollution, has proved to be an eco-friendly energy production method (The Observer of Business and Politics 25 April 2000).

TERI shows the way
TERI—scientists has been developing new technologies to tackle the problem of waste management
TERI has developed a high-rate digester for fibrous and semi-solid municipal waste with the promise of revolutionizing the waste disposal industry. Described as TEAM (TERI Enhanced Acidification and Methanation) process, for which the patent has also been filed, the digester is said to be quick, economically viable, and suitable for food and agro-based industries and markets. In the face of evident environmental drawbacks of waste disposal methods like land-filling and incineration, the process of biomethanation of waste by anaerobic digestion has economical and social benefits apart from being environment-friendly (The Hindu, 18 March 2000).
TERI began work on the development of a high-rate digester for fibrous and semi-solid MSW in 1996. TEAM process is the culmination of these efforts. The salient features of TEAM are listed below.
Lowered retention time (7 days) and plant area for the whole process to make it economically viable as compared to conventional single phase reactors (30–40 days) or aerobic composting (3 to 6 months)
Complete elimination of engineering problems like scum formation, floating of feed leading to incomplete digestion, feed flow problem, etc.
Technology suitable for adoption by small entrepreneurs
Low water consumption because of reuse of the UASB reactor overflow to acidification reactor
Production of good quality biogas, which can be used for power generation or thermal application like cooking or production of process steam as per the needs,
The decrease in total volume of the feed stock after decomposition is more than 50%
The residue after drying is good organic manure.
Currently, a bench-scale plant for processing 50 kg of vegetable waste per day is operational at the Gual Pahari campus of TERI, at Gurgaon, and efforts are under way for upscaling.
The wastes generated by various sectors need to be assessed and evaluated for their energy potential or reuse in any other form. Biomethanation has emerged as the best option for the treatment of high organic content liquids for energy generation. The use of this technology to Indian MSW is still in its developmental stage. Once a commercially proven technology is established, it will go a long way in dealing with energy problems in the country.


Professional Software
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations/Reporting
Industrial Pretreatment
Wastewater Operations Training
Wastewater Treatment Plant Modeling

Laboratory Information Management
Stream Modeling
Sewer Modeling / Design / Hydraulics
Other Software Listings
Below you will find descriptions and links for over 50 software programs used by professionals in the water pollution control field. I have personally used or tried only a few of them (Ops 32, Mineql, and Operator 10), and can provide no further information about the others beyond what you can find by following the links. Most of the descriptions are based on quotations from the web sites. I have tried to cover the major programs which have come to my attention. If you know of others that you feel should be included here, please let me know. I am also not actively updating prices or product upgrades, so if you find any inaccurate information, let me know about that also.
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations/Reporting
Name: Operator 10 Wastewater Data Management Source: Allmax Cost:: $4,200-- free demo "Operator 10® Plus Wastewater Management Monitoring and Report for Windows 3.1, 95, 98, and NT allows the entering and reporting of the plants laboratory analysis... Allows multiple facilities. Each facility may contain thousands of different sampling points while providing the ability to monitor thousands of parameters at each sampling point. The process setup section allows the user to define the treatment process in use at each facility, and where the sampling and flow measurement points are located. This allows Operator 10® Plus to calculate the loadings, removals and percent removals for each step of the treatment process and other treatment specific calculations such as F/M Ratio, MCRT, Volatile Reduction, etc. ...The DataView Application function allows the entering of daily, hourly and yearly data through the use of a spreadsheet type entry screen... Each user can enter, view, print, or export their own private Operator Notes of unlimited size, indexed by date and time. The Supervisor can then access these notes, as necessary, to provide complete plant information... Graphs of entered or calculated data may be created, saved, viewed, exported, or printed in the Operator 10® Plus Graphing Application... State and Federal Regulatory Reports can be printed on forms provided by a Regulatory Agency or printed entirely on plain paper for direct submittal." Other software available includes:AllMax Task Manager - $4,000.00 Water Data Management - $3,100.00BioSolids Data Management - $3,100.00PreTreatment Data Management - $3,100.00 Back to top
Name:OPS 32 (formerly OPS WiN) Source: OPS SYSTEMS Cost::base price, 3,000-- downloadable demo " for water & wastewater data management...The program manages your data, does your reports including NPDES and State DMR's, outputs graphs which analyze and predict process performance, and comes with computer modeling routines in which you can determine the effect of process changes without risking your process. Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95,98,NT. A simplified version called OPS EZ is available for $1,400. Also JOB Cal --a computerized maintenance management system . ..enter your equipment list, work to be done, and how often you want it done ... JOB Cal software automatically builds a job calendar that ... tells you what needs to be done, whats coming up, and whats overdue. To reschedule a job, just drag it to the new date. " Cost::$800 An upgraded version called JOB Plus ($2,000) also has a "graphics feature to display pictures of equipment or even your employees. PLUS more user-level security options." Back to top
Name: TREDAT Source: Cochrane Associates Inc. Cost::? "Data Handling, Calculations, Graphing, & Reports ...[a] data handling and process control software program for wastewater treatment facilities. Calculations are based on daily input values from laboratory data, plant logs and monitored concentrations. Daily/monthly/yearly summaries are configured by the user and viewed or printed. State and NPDES reports are generated monthly. Trending analysis is performed using running averages, statistics and various graphing options. Statistical analysis incorporates correlation coefficients of determination, multiple regression and other functions. This software is tailored to individual plants with respect to unit types, sizes and operational controls. Also available: TREMAIN® Scheduling and Reporting of Equipment Maintenance ... a comprehensive equipment information, maintenance scheduling and inventory management software program for municipal and/or industrial facilities. Specific information and maintenance requirements for any piece of plant equipment is organized and stored. Reviews of equipment keep track of both running and lapsed time for each piece of equipment and generate work orders which need to be performed when predetermined running or lapsed time intervals have been exceeded. The program records when preventative or corrective maintenance is accomplished, by whom, spare parts used and costs incurred. Maintenance, inventory and cost history for any or all equipment may be viewed or printed for any time interval. Inventory management produces requisition orders which include vendor information. Back to top
Name:NPDES Discharge Monitoring Report Form TemplatesTMSource: CHEMSW Cost::Win or Mac, $299 "[an] Excel template... [for] completing your periodic NPDES DMR forms. The program is easy to configure so it exactly matches your reporting requirements. Reports can be readily printed or archived for later retrieval and results can be exported in a variety of standard data formats. The printed form looks identical to the standard NPDES DMR form. Also, state templates Back to top
Name:WDMS (Wastewater Data Management) Source: Enfotech Cost:: ? "Permit Management, Monitoring Management, ND Data Management, DMR Calculation, Compliance Management, Discharge Trend Analysis, External Data Interface, LAN compatable"--- downloadable demoSee also DMR Server (Electronic DMR Data Transfer)Back to top
Name:Monitor 5 for Windows Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: $4,900, US (evaluation copy available)"[an] environmental data management and monitoring application that can comprehensively manage, evaluate and present most types of environmental information... from a variety of sources including: Groundwater and Surface Water, Soils Licensed Discharge, Stormwater, Laboratory QA Procedures, Solid and Hazardous Waste, Emissions, Leachate and Underdrain, Drinking Water, and Treatment Plant Discharge, among others... can manage any size or number of monitoring and testing programs... can readily connect to a variety of commercial databases..." Back to top
Industrial Pretreatment Programs
Name: Operator 10 Pre-Treatment Management Source: Allmax Cost: $2,350-- downloadable demo "An essential management tool for any facility accepting, monitoring, or regulating industrial flows. Features: Industry List & Editor: unlimited number, maintain complete information; Sampling Points: hourly, daily or monthly; Limit Editor: surcharge limits, violation limits... ; DataView: spreadsheet-style grids, multiple style graphs ; Operator Notes; Reports: Limit Report, Surcharge Report, SNC Report, Industry Sampling Report, Facility Sampling Report and an Action Log Report.; Parameter List: 15,000 USEPA defined and user-defined parameters; Multiple Facilities; Password / Security ; Locked Data / Security; English / Metric Capabilities; Import / Export; Context Sensitive Help"Back to top
Name: PRETRE2 Source: Cochrane Associates Inc. Cost::? (downloadable demo)" industrial pretreatment software program for municipal wastewater treatment systems... fully menu driven database encompasses the realm of industrial discharge monitoring through comprehensive information management, tracking of accomplishments and reports generation. The required letters and forms are configured by the user and printed utilizing information from an industrial database by indicating the desired industry. Report generation for state and regulatory agencies ... Sampling results are automatically screened for violations during entry. A separate file keeps all pertinent violation information, including notification data and corrective action taken. CAPABILITIES: Permit Tracking, Sample Monitoring, Reporting, Significant Non-Compliance" Back to top Name: CAPTAINS Source: Goldie and Associates Cost: Base Price -single user version, $2,995.00 --- multiple user version, Base + $300/user-- demo available(Computer Aided Pretreatment And Information Navigation Systems)--- Modules Included :... Sampling, Sample Reporting, Industry Specifications, Parameter Specifications, SNC Determination, Yearly Summaries(daily max; monthly average), NOV Reporting, Inspections, Compliance Schedules, Industry Permits, Pretreatment Reports Specific to State. Additional Customization Options Available..." There is also a CAPTAINS-Lite for $1,000 less for use by an individual regulated industry.Back to top
Name: LinkoCTS+ Source: LinkoWeb Cost: $3,000 to $6,000 depending on modules purchased, additonal $1,000 for network versionIndustrial Pretreatment Compliance Tracking Software...purchase only the functionality that your pretreatment program needs. CTSPlus is built in three modules; CTS Base, Compliance ASSISTANT and the Schedule PRO...CTS Base module: Track IU's, permit information, contact information, Import/Enter analytical testing samples and results, Check results for compliance violations, Automatically create professional reports Compliance ASSISTANT module: Calculate Significant Non Compliance (SNC) for parameters, TRC and Chronic violations, Reports tailored to SNC violationsSchedule PRO module: Schedule any pretreatment task, Sampling, inspections, invoices, violation notices and more.requires Microsoft Access 8.0 ® and IBM® or compatible PC with at least a Pentium®80486 [SIC] processor. Downloadable Powerpoint demoBack to top Name: PACS Pretreatment Software for POTWs Source: Enfotech Cost: ?"Local Limit Modeling, Permit Management, DMR Data Management, Compliance Inspection, Noncompliance Detection, Enforcement Management, Surcharge Management"LAN compatable... downloadable demo Back to top Name: PRELIM 5.0 Source: USEPA (Region 9) Cost: free DOS software from the US EPA, last updated in 1996: PRELIM calculates and allocates technically-based local discharge limits for industrial pretreatment programs, based on considerations of pollutant pass-though, accumulation in the sludge, and inhibition to treatment processes. A list of industries and their pollutant loadings, background concentrations, and treatment plant operating information form the input for the calculations. A printable users' manual in Wordperfect format is included in the 340K self-extracting zip file download. Note that entries are limited to four decimal places, which leads to problems with some water quality limits.Note that "PCME" software, a free program for tracking pretreatment monitoring and compliance, which was previously available from the EPA, has not been supported since 1993 and was not Y2K compliant.Back to top
Name: PreWin Source: PreWin Cost: ?"PreWin helps POTW's monitor and enforce Industrial User (IU) compliance with federal Pretreatment regulations. PreWin schedules and tracks IU and POTW activities, monitors sampling results and automatically detects effluent discharge and reporting violations. Designed according to EPA regulations, PreWin determines Significant Non-Compliance (SNC) and supports generation and tracking of enforcement actions." Minimum requirements: PC, Pentium III, Windows 95 can customize, "upsize", network. Demo disks can be requested online.Back to top
Wastewater Operations Training
Name: Operations Training Wastewater Treatment Course on CD-ROM Source: Water Environment Federation Cost::Member Price: $1,495; Non-Member Price: $1,795 "... multimedia training software ... covers : preliminary treatment, primary treatment, activated sludge, stabilization lagoons, fixed film, reactors, solids handling, and disinfection.... contains: beginner, intermediate and advanced skill levels... actual photos and video enhanced animations... final exam with randomly generated questions that guarantee a different question each time and the ability to access any module for instant clarification of a topic anytime you want. Order No. E52267WW (Note: this CD-ROM will not run on Macintosh© computers.)" Back to top
Name: WasteWater Training Program© (WWTP™) Source: Lewis & Zimmerman Associates, Inc.Cost:: $195 US (downloadable demo) "interactive training program... [a]ccommodating both the novice and the advanced wastewater treatment plant operator/supervisor... features a simulator, which allows users to create a wastewater treatment plant and simulate "what-if" scenarios to troubleshoot situations—before they occur in real life... provides in-depth coverage of the technologies, theory, disciplines, and processes needed to obtain and maintain state certification or advanced training in wastewater treatment plant operations. Animations help to visualize the operations of complex plant processes...integrates simulations, text, graphics, and stereo sound into an attractive, easy-to-use interface."Back to top
Wastewater Treatment Plant Modeling
Name: BioWin Source: Envirosim Cost: $6,000 or $1,500 per year lease (I have been informed that the academic version of BioWin is now available to degree-granting institutions for $100 dollars (formerly $1000) )-- downloadable demo version"...a comprehensive tool for analysis of biological wastewater treatment systems. The package was developed with the primary objective of providing a powerful tool to aid both the process designer and operators of these facilities...easy to use.... has been developed as a Microsoft Windows application... [with the] familiar interface and menu structure. Context-sensitive Help is built into BioWin to provide on-line assistance, particularly for new users."Back to top
Name: EFOR Source: DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute) Cost: ? (demo download available)"EFOR is an advanced software simulation package for modeling the processes in a wastewater treatment plant. It is a valuable tool for the plant operator or the designer in forecasting or explaining the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Different scenarios for plant configuration, plant operation and influent can easily be constructed and tested."Back to top
Name: GPS-X Source: Hydromantis (UK, Canada) Cost: ? Downloadable demo(50 MB) or free demo CD--Windows 95, 98 or NT 4.0 "...wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) modelling and simulation software can mimic your plant interactively and dynamically, improve your plant capacity, save on operating costs, obtain answers to your "What If" questions, and... more... A plant simulator... able to mimic the actual plant - complete with influent changes, interacting processes and... internal adjustments to the processes by operators... easy to use graphical environment... over 400 different process models... available... build a layout of your plant by manipulating graphical icons on a drawing board and assigning the appropriate process models and parameter values. GPS-X then compiles the objects into a plant model... GPS-X models can also form the basis of a control system in a WWTP. When linked to a real plant SCADA system, modules such as the Dynamic Parameter Estimator track and adjust key values to automatically maintain good calibration and provide early warning of potential plant upsets.""April 30, 2001 - Hydromantis, Inc. announced the release of software named CapdetWorks for the design and costing of wastewater treatment plants. CapdetWorks is a planning level design and costing tool that allows the user to drag-and-drop unit processes to build a wastewater treatment plant schematic, automatically calculate a design and then estimate the cost to build, operate and maintain the facility... About sixty treatment processes are provided including physical/chemical, biological, biosolids stabilization, handling and de-watering technologies...." Cost: US$ 2,450 per license. Free evaluations can be downloaded from the company web site."August 13, 2001 - Aquavarra Research Limited of Dublin, Ireland has provided exclusive international rights to Hydromantis...for the distribution and support of their ARTS hydraulic design software... a comprehensive, yet intuitive tool to assist engineers with hydraulic design and analysis... including automatic design of system components, hydraulic profiles through treatment plants, waterhammer analysis, force mains and complex water distribution networks. ARTS version 1.2 is available for all Windows systems and sells for [US $1,950] per license outside Ireland." Back to top
Name: Process Advisor Pro Source: Optimal Control Research (Finland) Cost: $495 --Downloadable trial version "Process Advisor Pro is a software package for real time simulation, analysis and control of the biological wastewater treatment process", including nitrification and denitrification . "Run Simulation And Estimation to visualize processes like biomass concentration, organic matter concentration in wastewater and treated water, etc. Choose from more than 20 control algorithms, including sludge load control, sludge loading control, sludge age control, sludge concentration control, and organic matter concentration control....Highly visual. Almost all characteristics of every process are available as charts, which are drawn in real time ..."also available, Process Advisor, Price $395 "A lesser version of Process Advisor Pro... without nitrification and denitrification capabilities..."; Process Advisor MBR [Carbon removal in membrane bioreactor: Price $449]; and Settler Specialist [Clarifier analysis : Price $199] Back to top
Name: SASS and SASSPro Source: Science Traveller International Cost: SASS~ A$325 (Australian) (US$215); SASSpro A$850(US$560) " SASS is an MS-Windows introductory modelling program for steady-state Activated Sludge Simulations. Based on a fully aerobic system, SASS provides mixed liquor, biomass,oxygen, nitrification and effluent calculations with selectable primary wastewater characteristics, temperature coefficients and kinetic constants. SASSPro is an advanced version providing extended modelling facilities across 8 primary BNR plant configurations, with selection from over 50 process parameters. Additional facilities include denitrification, phosphorus removal and alkalinity calculations, sludge disposal costing and aeration power requirements. Reactor volumes, recycle rates, oxygen levels and wastewater characteristics are fully configurable, with dynamic re-calculation of Rsm (minimum sludge age for nitrification) and optimum MLSS 'a' recycle flow rates."Back to top
Name: STOAT Source: DHI Software Cost: ?"STOAT is a PC based computer modelling tool designed to dynamically simulate the performance of a wastewater treatment works. The software can be used to simulate individual treatment processes or the whole treatment works, including sludge treatment processes, septic tank imports and recycles. The model enables the user to optimise the response of the works to changes in the influent loads, works capacity or process operating conditions. See this MP & Associates site for a further description. Back to top
Name: WEST Source: HEMMIS N.V. (Belgium) Cost:? Downloadable demo"WEST® offers a user-friendly modeling and simulation platform for different processes: wastewater modeling and simulation, river modeling and simulation, catchment modeling and simulation, fermentation modeling and simulation, ecological modeling and simulation... Process optimization; Cost reduction; Bottleneck identification; Controller design; Training; Automation "Back to top
Name: STORMAX Source: Enviromega, Inc.Cost: free (DOS)"STORMAX is a PC-based software program for evaluting strategies to minimize wet weather flow impacts at wastewater treatment plants. The program predicts the hydraulic capacity of a wastewater treatment plant... [b]y incorporating a model that predicts the solids distribution in an aeration basin, for various influent feed points, with a correlation that relates sludge settling characteristics with the settler overflow rate... The program output displays the available modes of operation for a plant with their respective capacities, and selects the optimal mode of operation."Back to top
Name: TOXCHEM+ Source: Enviromega, Inc.Cost: $3,000 single user 1st copy, academic 1/3-- demo download "TOXCHEM+ provides a quick and easy way to evaluate the fate of toxic organic chemicals and metals in wastewater sewer systems and treatment plants. The model includes mechanisms for volatilization, biodegradation and sorption to solids. Simply build a treatment process interactively by dragging and dropping icons on to a grid, connect them together, enter the process data and run the model. The current version of TOXCHEM+ runs on Windows 3.1, 3.11 and Windows 95 and Windows NT."Back to top
Name: WATER 8 and CHEMDAT 8 Source: USEPA Cost: free"WATER8 is an analytical model for estimating compound-specific air emissions from wastewater collection & treatment systems. CHEMDAT8 is a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet that includes analytical models for estimating VOC emissions from treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) processes. Contact the WATER8 and CHEMDAT8 hotline at(919) 541-5610 for more information dos or windows"Back to top
Laboratory Information Management
Name: Lab Master Source: Dynamic Databases.Cost: $3,995 -- free demo version is available.According to the company, users can quickly and easily handle the demands of running an efficient laboratory -- from sample log-in to invoice printing -- using this Windows-based program. Designed for the small to medium-sized lab, the product can work in may types of laboratories,such as analytical, environmental, petrochemical and biological." Back to top
Name: Lab Task Source: RJ Lee Solutions Cost: ?"RJ Lee Solutions ... provides laboratory automation products and services, including a suite of Y2K compliant, PC based laboratory automation systems... Powerful features and functionality include sample login, tracking, work-load planning, manual and automated results entry, expanded QA/QC capabilities, control charting, flagging, and reporting. RJ Lee Solutions integrates these products with a wide variety of technical services. Installed applications include environmental, process control, wastewater/drinking water... labs. Through a technology transfer agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) in the early 1990's, RJ Lee Group acquired exclusive rights to commercialize two laboratory automation software products: RLIMS, a relational laboratory information management system based on a design developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and SIRS, a Sample Information Retrieval System, developed by DOE.... In 1997, RJ Lee Group acquired the Lab Task LIMS software from LabVantage Solutions."Back to top
Name: LabLite 2000 Source: LabLite Cost: pricing by rep., free Demo and evaluation version, "LabLite LLC is a full-service LIMS provider...Our flagship product, LabLite 2000, can be scaled to any environment...[and] is versatile enough to be adapted to meet the needs of any lab. From one user to a thousand, from environmental to forensics..."Back to top
Name: LABTROL Source: Sullivan Software Cost: single user $ 4,500; LAN version $ 6,000. [Rent-to-Own over 5 years]"..a FoxPro-based LIMS... has been in the market since 1989 and is installed in environmental labs in 13 states...developed for use specifically in labs performing environmental analyses... a full-featured LIMS that provides sample tracking, reporting, security, data analysis and entry, data confirmation, billing and more." Back to top
Name: LABWORKS Source: Analytical Automation Specialists, Inc Cost: ?"...first introduced over 14 years ago as one of the first PC-Based LIMS...The latest offering from AAS is LABWORKSelect, a suite of unique industry-specific LIMS solutions. LABWORKSelect includes packages for environmental labs, water and wastewater labs, process control labs, industrial labs and utilities...LABWORKS special applications include a Process Scheduler, NPDES Reporting, Industrial , LWQuote module, customizable COAs, LWExplorer (inter/intranet access),interface to TerraBase validation and ArcView GIS software. Reporting ... [uses] standard word processing applications such as Word, Access, Excel, and Crystal. Standard features include single and multi-sample login, results entry, reporting, archive and retrieve, validation, QA Batching, complete calculations, etc. Remote data entry is available using the Portable Data Entry Terminal (PDET) or Field Data Entry Terminal (FDET). AAS also offers numerous instrument interfaces to LABWORKS."Back to top
Name: Sample Master® Source: Accelerated Technology Laboratories, Inc. Cost: ?"...a complete Windows-based LIMS for the small to mid-size laboratory...ease of use was the main objective... created using Microsoft's, including data from instruments, can be directly imported and exported to and from other Windows-based applications...cost was an important consideration. Sample Master has no "per user" fee ...modularity allows you to purchase just the portions of the LIMS that you need, and additional modules can be purchased as your laboratory grows."Back to top
Name: MSC-LIMS Source: Mountain States Consulting, LLC Cost: Only $500 for a single-user Annual Subscription license and $7,000 for a Full System license with all source code. Downloadable demo available."MSC-LIMS is a flexible, powerful, secure and stable GALP-compliant laboratory information management system designed for small to mid-sized labs. Current MSC-LIMS installations include water/wastewater, commercial environmental, food testing and petrochemical applications... available in both single-user and multi-user versions for small workgroups of up to twenty concurrent users. MSC-LIMS is suitable for labs processing up to 75,000 samples per year and up to 300,000 analyses per year."... developed initially by the Cheyenne, Wyoming, wastewater treatment plant laboratoryBack to top
Name: LABTrack™ Source: CHEMSW Cost: Single-User ,$ 495.00; Five-User , $ 1,995.00; Fifteen-User $ 4,995.00"Electronic Lab Notebook....LABTrack can store ALL of the data that your lab produces -Raw and Reduced....batch and sample data, results, notes, SOP's, chromatograms, spectra, spreadsheets, word processing doc's, photographs...can be used simultaneously by one or many people...the optional Crystal Reports software supports linking multiple notebooks together for laboratory and organization-wide reporting needs...can define an unlimited number of tests, analysts, products etc...incorporates the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Electronic Signature standard ...includes over a dozen predefined reports for functions common to most laboratories...Export[s] data ... into other Windows applications.... Requires Windows 95, 98 or Windows NT..."Back to top
Name: LabMaestro Ensemble (LME) Source: CHEMSW Cost: ?"LME is part of the family of LIMS and laboratory automation solutions developed and supported LabVantage Solutions (LVS), the world's largest independent LIMS provider. PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS: Complete Sample Management, Work Assignments, Audit Trails, Comprehensive Reporting, Result Entry & Validation, Quoting & Invoicing, Instrument Interfacing, QC Reporting, Oracle & SQL Server Databases, Automates manual tasks, Offers real-time QC data and charts..."Back to top
Name: WWTP 2000™ Source: CHEMSW Cost: $ 999(not a full LIMS) "...inexpensive and easy to use wastewater laboratory data management application... [a] Microsoft Excel application designed specifically for municipal wastewater laboratories. Enter your raw laboratory data into the electronic benchsheets and... calculate values based on Standard Methods calculations. All the basic benchsheets have been incorporated into WWTP2000 including BOD, Suspended Solids Ammonia -N, Total Solids and Acid Alkalinity. Data can be linked dynamically to daily and monthly lab reports ... you can instantly visualize what the removal efficiency for a particular day is with 3-D column charts to assist you in making decisions on process control. WWTP 2000 will chart ... process control data for quick reference."Back to top See also CHEMSW's site for software to perform simpler chemical calculations useful in lab work.Back to top
Name: ItemTracker Source: MediData Systems Limited Cost: "Lite" version, £750; ItemTracker Standalone ('ItemTracker Professional' for a single machine), £1250 and Annual License Fee £750 (after first year, includes support and upgrades); network version-- price not listed. ."Sample Tracking and Storage Area Management... ItemTracker is a highly configurable all-inclusive sample management and tracking solution." "A 'Sample Tracker' for all sites... Supports ALL storage configurations and sample types... Clients using ItemTracker range from small laboratories with one or two users storing a few hundred samples to much larger sites with many users storing millions of samples... Sample tracking wherever your samples are - in storage, the laboratory or elsewhere... Absolutely ANY storage system configuration can be replicated... An audit trail can be viewed at any time for any item to see who has done what, to which items, from where and when..." Back to top
Name: MINEQL+ Source: MINEQL Cost: Free DOS version-- Windows version$500 (free demo download) This is not lab information management software, but rather a chemical equilibrium modeling program. "This program was orignally designed to be a research tool but it is currently used in over 500 colleges and universities worldwide as an aid in teaching aquatic chemistry.... create systems by selecting chemical components from a menu, scan the thermodynamic database and run the calculation...., create a personal thermodynamic database, perform synthetic titrations and automatically process mutiple samples (such as field data)... MINEQL+ uses a thermodynamic database that contains the entire USEPA MINTEQA2 database plus data for chemical components that the EPA did not include, so all calculations will produce results compatible with EPA specifications... " MINEQL+ Runs on Windows 3.1/95/NT
Stream Modeling
Name: BASINS Source: USEPA Cost: free Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources A system developed to help EPA and state agencies to assess watershed water quality issues caused by point and non-point sources of pollution. "It integrates a geographic information system (GIS), national watershed data, and state-of-the-art environmental assessment and modeling tools into one convenient package." It includes the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), which "simulates the major reactions of nutrient cycles, algal production, benthic and carbonaceous demand, atmospheric reaeration and their effects on the dissolved Oxygen balance. It can predict up to 15 water quality constituent concentrations. It is intended as a water quality planning tool for developing total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and can also be used in conjunction with field sampling for identifying the magnitude and quality characteristics of nonpoint sources." UPDATE:August 31, 2001 BASINS Version 3.0 is now available on CDROMs. BASINS, "A Powerful Tool for Managing Watersheds" is a multipurpose environmental analysis system that integrates a geographical information system (GIS), national watershed data, and state-of-the-art environmental assessment and modeling tools into one convenient package. BASINS 3 introduces two new water quality models PLOAD and SWAT, several new tools, new updated national datasets, and an online help feature. Back to top
Name: HEC-HMS Source: Water Resources Consulting Services Cost: $75 - 95 "Hydrology modeling software from US army corps of engineers HEC-HMS provides a variety of options for simulating precipitation-runoff processes and is comprised of a graphical user interface (GUI), integrated hydrologic analysis components, data storage and management capabilities, and graphics and reporting facilities."Back to top
Name: HEC-RAS Source: Haestad Methods Cost: $495 single user license "HEC-RAS is the Army Corps of Engineer's Hydraulic Engineering Center River Analysis System. This product is now available from Haestad Methods…" " HEC-RAS analyzes networks of natural and man-made channels and computes water surface profiles on steady one dimensional flow hydraulics."Back to top
Name: ISIS River Basin Management Systems Source: HR Wallingford (UK) Cost: ? (free trial download or CD available) " ISIS includes modules suitable for carrying out a wide range of environmental and pollution management studies. Used in conjunction with the hydrodynamic modules, the ISIS environmental modules can be used to: Study the environmental impact of changes in water quality and flow regimes on river and canal systems; Assess the effects of reduced residual flows, Study saline intrusion and water quality processes in tidal rivers; Predict the effect of pollution incidents on downstream or upstream conditions; Simulate the transport of cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. ISIS also links to the HydroWorks wastewater modelling system from Wallingford Software for simulating the impact of urban drainage discharges on receiving waters." Back to top
Name: MIKE 11 Source: DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute) Cost: ? (demo download available) "MIKE 11 is a professional engineering software package for the simulation of flows, water quality and sediment transport in estuaries, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. It is a dynamic, user-friendly one-dimensional modelling tool for the detailed design, management and operation of both simple and complex river and channel systems."See the DHI Software pages for other pacakges in the MIKE series, including software for marine, coastal and hydrology modeling.Back to top
Name: PC-QUASAR Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: price $7,400 (Universities, $300 20-user license) "PC-QUASAR is a river network water quality and flow model for river networks. It is designed to be used by river regulatory authorities and water/sewerage utility companies to help manage river water quality. PC-QUASAR allows easy comparison between the existing state of the river and that which would exist after a planned change or an unplanned event had occurred in the river network. PC-QUASAR describes the changes in water quality over time and allows tracking of pollution pulses downstream. Output is in the form of color graphics on the screen or plotter and in tabular form on printers. Parameters modeled are flow, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, temperature, E. Coli, pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and a conservative pollutant or tracer."Back to top
Name: WASP5 Source: Computational Hydraulics Int.-USEPA Cost: free download " Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP5) is a generalized framework for modeling contaminant fate and transport in surface waters. Based on the flexible compartment modeling approach, it can be applied in one, two or three dimensions. Problems studied using WASP5 include biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen dynamics, nutrients and eutrophication, bacterial contamination, and organic chemical and heavy metal contamination. WASP5 includes two kinetic sub models, EUTRO5 and TOXI5, to simulate both conventional and toxic pollution. Used primarily to investigate the water quality response to management actions, WASP5 is a tremendous asset in computing point and nonpoint source load reduction."Back to top
Sewer Modeling / Design / Hydraulics
Name: Civil Engineering Software Toolbox Source: CivilTools Cost: shareware, $33 " CivilTools is a software package for Windows 3.1, 95, 98, or NT which assists a qualified Civil Engineering designer in performing various hydraulic calculations related to the flow of water in pipes, culverts, ditches, and channels."Back to top
Name: HydraGraphics Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: $2,500 to 5,500 "… [S]ewer analysis, design and management software [f]or stormwater, sanitary wastewater, or combined collection systems --- options for generating sanitary flow injections--- stormwater runoff methods--- infiltration/inflow capability--- Dynamic modeling to find worst-case scenarios--- System design features, construction cost estimation, and more … " downloadable slide-show demo--- Win 3.1/95/NT - exports to Autocadä Back to top
Name: Hydroworks Source: HR Wallingford (UK) Cost: ? "... dynamic simulation and design tool for urban drainage… Model all key elements of a wastewater planning project… running under Windows 3.x, 95, 98, and NT"Back to top
Name: LMNO Source: LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. Cost: Free, on-line, Java-based flow and hydraulics calculations " Our current web-based software is in the hydraulics engineering area. We hope to develop additional software for simulating natural phenomena such as groundwater migration and remediation systems for cleanup of polluted rivers and aquifers. We are also considering development of water and wastewater treatment plant software and software to complement college engineering courses."Back to top
Name: MOUSE Source: DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute)Cost: ? (demo download available) "MOUSE is advanced, powerful, and comprehensive surface runoff, open channel flow, pipe flow, water quality and sediment transport modelling package for urban drainage systems, storm water sewers and sanitary sewers. MOUSE combines complex hydrology, hydraulics, water quality and sediment transport in a completely graphical, easy-to-use interface."They also offer MIKE SWMM, Wastewater and stormwater modeling based on the US-EPA SWMM engine (see below) and MIKE NET, Water distribution systems including real-time control and water quality - based on the US-EPA EPANET engine. Back to top
Name: Sanitary Sewers Source: The Scientific Software Group Cost: $875 "Sanitary Sewers models complex networks in full or partial flow conditions. Sanitary Sewers has full design capabilities that size pipes, set inverted elevations for gravity lines and hydraulically model lift stations with multiple pumps. Specify design flows through land use analysis and/or by user-defined flows including infiltration rates and peak flow factors. Model new or existing sewer systems and compute the hydraulic grade line for each." --requires Autocadä Back to top
Name: SewerCAD Source: Haestad Methods Cost: ? " … [a] design and analysis tool that allows you to layout a collection system, develop and compute sanitary loads, and simulate the hydraulic response of the entire system - including gravity and pressure forcemains. --- comprehensive design capabilities for sizing and locating sewer system pipes on either a system-wide or pipe-by-pipe basis. SewerCAD can be run using Haestad Methods own Stand-Alone Windows interface, or directly inside AutoCADä ." Another product of this company is StormCAD, a storm sewer design and analysis model for Windowsä .Back to top
Name: SewerCAT Source: Reid Crowther Cost: Free"[U]se SewerCAT to model sewer networks ... provides a flexible, fully object oriented framework for modeling dynamics of sewer networks... .it is available at no cost and can be freely shared... it includes features which are important for design, implementation and testing of operational strategies such as supervisory real time control... the software architecture is component based and highly modularized; the long term direction is for distributed development, where individual users can implement their own components. " Back to top
Name: SWMM Source: CEE Cost: free? (Originated from US EPA )"Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) - comprehensive computer model for analysis of quantity and quality problems associated with urban runoff.… Modeler can simulate all aspects of the urban hydrologic and quality cycles, including rainfall, snowmelt, surface and subsurface runoff, flow routing through drainage network, storage and treatment. Statistical analyses can be performed on long-term precipitation data and on output from continuous simulation. SWMM can be used for planning and design…" Current version is 4.30,released in May 1994.Back to top
Name: PCSWMM Source: Computational Hydraulics Int. (CHI) Cost: ? " graphical decision support system for the USEPA SWMM program…. provides a large array of file management, model development, model calibration, output interpretation/presentation, and reference tools for the stormwater modeler. Written for the Windows '95/'98 and Windows NT 4.0 operating systems…Back to top
Other Software Listings
Name: The Wastewater Engineering Virtual Library is a site with many links to wastewater information, including municipal, academic, research, and commercial resources. Enter "software" as a search term to get a list.
Name: EnviroInfo: Software
Name: Laboratory Information Management Systems Source: LIMSource A clearinghouse, with many links to for LIMS vendors and other sources of informationBack to top